Topic: Transport related to pollution
Transport came to the lime light of the pollution debate after the issue of pollution from sooty smog from the burning of coal got to be solved. Since solving of the issue, emissions that ensue from the transport sector including motor vehicles, jets, and trains have been the main contributors to the pollution of the air. The effects of the emissions affect the urbanites health conditions, in addition to affecting the production, of ozone in the troposphere. This research paper considers the impacts of the various forms of transport to the atmosphere. The paper looks at the relationships between; urban land traffic, that is road and rail, in relation to the human health. It also looks at the relationship between emissions from the jets and the global change. In the last part of this paper, it looks at the role played by the emissions from ships and the relationship between the emissions and the deposition of acidic sulphur oxides. The examples that get to be discussed in this level get to be considered with a degree of uncertainty since the three sectors of the economy are dynamic in nature. The paper focuses on the steps that the stakeholders in the environmental conservation are taking through concerted efforts in order to abate the degree of air pollution. Key words found in this paper are motor vehicle emissions, aerosols, impacts on the health, ship emissions and jet emissions(Stephenson, 2010). Introduction
There is widespread recognition that transport is a significant contributor the pollution of the atmosphere. The environmental authorities world over is aware of the increasing role that gets to be played by all modes of transport that use fossil fuels. The main are of concern for the regulators are in part. The third international symposium on transport and air pollution laid emphasis on the urban transport and the impact it has on the urban air quality. In the most of authoritative researches on the environment, much emphasis gets to be laid on the effect of transport on the urban air even though they mention shipping and other issues relating to air pollution. This paper seeks to look at the issues while laying equal emphasis on the three sectors. Individual case will get to be presented while giving a scientific account on the occurrence of the pollution. The research restricts itself to emission of gases and particles(Stephenson, 2010). While making an overview of the pollution of the air it is explicit that save for a few modes, most of the modes of transport are responsible for the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The only difference between the emissions made by any of the modes is the degree of pollutants found in the fuel used by the mode of transport under consideration. The most significant and common pollutant from the fuels is the carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide comes from complete combustion of the fuel which gets to be attained by ensuring that the combustion chambers of the vehicles have air in excess. This trait is common in the diesel engines lean burning petrol engines(Stephenson, 2010). However, the combustion in the engines is not complete as most people would like to believe. This leads to emission of carbon monoxide and some percentage of hydrocarbons that are potentially volatile when they get to be released in to the environment in the mixture of exhaust gases. There is also emission of droplets of fuel that has not undergone combustion at all. Most of the fuels have impurities such as sulphur and vanadium. Sulphur in the fuels gets to be oxidized into sulphur dioxide which is acidic. Vanadium is usually not combusted into any form since it requires high pressure. Nitrogen is also burnt into nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. All the nitrogen oxides are acidic leading to the formation of acidic rain in the event of contact with moisture in the...
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