Politics of India

Topics: India, Lok Sabha, Indian National Congress Pages: 9 (2806 words) Published: October 13, 2010
Politics of India
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Politics of India take place in a framework of a federal parliamentary multi-party representative democratic republic. India is the world's largest democracy.[1][2] In India, the Prime Minister of India is identified as the head of government of the nation, while the President of India is said to be the formal head of state and holds substantial reserve powers, placing him or her in approximately the same position as the British monarch. Executive power is enforced by the government. It can be noted that federal legislative power is vested in both the government of India and the two characteristic chambers of the Parliament of India. Also, it can be said that the judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature. Looking at the constitution, India is a nation that is characterized to be "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." India is the largest state by population with a democratically-elected government. Like the United States, India has a federal form of government, however, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. Regarding the former, "the Centre", the national government, can and has dismissed state governments if no majority party or coalition is able to form a government or under specific Constitutional clauses, and can impose direct federal rule known as President's rule. Locally, the Panchayati Raj system has several administrative functions. For most of the years since independence, the federal government has been guided by the Indian National Congress (INC),[3] In India the two largest political parties have been the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Presently the two parties have dominated the Indian politics, however regional parities too exist. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the corruption of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years.[4] As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority, the INC formed a minority government under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term.[5] The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term.[6] In the 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats...
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