development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings". Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st Century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through heredity. The king often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a Council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors, and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government. Long before the council became a bulwark of democracy, it rendered invaluable aid to the institution of kingship by: Preserving the institution of kingship through heredity.
Preserving the traditions of the social order.
Being able to withstand criticism as an impersonal authority. Being able to manage a greater deal of knowledge and action than a single individual such as the king. The greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls, archdukes and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the Council. A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the Council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. The state and property
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