Political Organization of Space

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Notes: Jessica Medina

Political Organization of Space
-What is a territory, exactly? It seems to me that it's a pattern of boundaries imposed on something by individual decision or group agreement. That means an individual or group can decide or agree to change the pattern.

-Political boundaries exist at a variety of scales, and these boundaries influence how goods and services are distributed, who gets represented and who does not, and how issues are confronted.

-Because the boundaries that receive the most attention are boundaries between independent countries, one might begin this discussion by considering the historical and contemporary role of these boundaries and how they reflect the distribution of other phenomena.

- A federal state is one in which there is a constitutional right for local governments to act in specified areas, such as legislation. A unitary state is one in which local governments (if there are any) have been set up under statute law, and are in effect delegated to run certain services on behalf of a central government.

- A spatial relation specifies how some object is located in space in relation to some reference object. Since the reference object is usually much bigger than the object to locate, the latter is often represented by a point.

Concept of states
- The concept of nation and states is that everyone must be strictly be separated into lands where everyone's language, culture, heritage and other related factors are the same. it is this concept which had obstructed the progress of world peace and unity through the development of nationalism and cultural difference, and must be dissolved in order to achieve world unity.
- A quasi-anything is something that isn't quite what it says it is. It can refer to a person, or a country. So if South Ossetia fulfills some of the conditions for a state, but not enough to fully qualify, it is a quasi-state. Georgia may or may not agree wtih South Ossetia's self-definition of statehood, but South Ossetia speaks a distinctly separate language and that separates it from Georgia.

Problems of Multinational states and statesless nations
- Almost all the countries of the world are "multi- nationality" states. The reasons are millenia old. In most of the countries of the world originally some weaker races of neolithic age or bronze age lived .But later stronger people bringing iron age culture invaded these lands and conqured and crushed the previous people In many cases people were killed in large numbers or enslaved. The conquered races lived miserable lives and could not raise their voices till the dawning of modern age of liberty,equality,fraternity,democracy,so… etc. Because in every modern state the previously enslaved people are asserting their rights,demanding Independence or autonomy etc there is incessant friction.

- Unless economic condition of all the oppressed people is improved and unless they are guaranteed cultural and social equality and good opportunities to get good education,housing,health facilities etc there will be incessant trouble in all the multinational states.

Notes (Laura)
*evolution of the contemporary political pattern
-the nation state concept: A useful starting point is the sixteenth-to-seventeenth century’s political pattern in western/central European. The continent was dominated two distinct types of countries. One the incipient national states such as England, France, Spain, and Portugal and the other the empires in central and Eastern Europe. The Peace of Westphalia (1648), held that the Prince of any realm could determine the religion of that realm, as part of an arrangement that governed how territorial units in the Holy Roman Empire would relate to one another. The sovereignty principle is significant because it provided a theoretical foundation for carving territory into largely autonomous governmental units.   This meant that the exercise of power was no longer...
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