Political Modle of Organization

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Contents
Introduction:2
Organizational Politics:2
Political Tactics:3
Impression Management:4
Power In Organization:4
Conflict:4
Negotiation:4
Bargaining strategies:5
Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining5
The Negotiation Process:6
Conclusion:6
References:6

Political Model of Organization
Introduction:
Politics in organizations is an inseparable and ever-present part of modern work life. Contrary to generally held belief that business and politics don’t mix, power games and politics play a significant role in decision making and in routine affairs of an organization. Generally, words like politics and power have certain negativity attached to them but organizational politics, if understood and intelligently managed, can contribute constructively to working and performance of organizations. In the next sections we discuss organizational politics and it definition, political action and tactics. We also discuss briefly the related areas of impression management, conflict and negotiations. Organizational Politics:

Organizational politics involves purposeful act of influence to protect the interests of groups and individuals in the organization. An emphasis on self-interest distinguishes this foam of social influence. In every organization managers are finally challenged to reach or achieve a balanceable work between self-interest of employees and organizational interest. Whenever there is a proper balance exists, the following of self-interest would sever organizational interests. When organizational interests get defeated by self-interest then political behavior becomes a negative force. For instance, researchers have documented the political tactic of filtering and distorting information flowing up to the boss. This self-serving practice put the reporting employees in the best possible light(Buelens 2006a, p.488) Political action, most of the political actions are occurs at the individuals, but also it can involve group action. There are three different levels of political actions they are individual level, coalition level, networks level. Each level has differencing features. At individual level, personal self-interest is followed by individuals. However, the political aspect of coalition and networks are not so exact. A political coalition means people who are with a same opinion or interest. According to the definition from the organization point of view coalition or union has an informal group gathers to follow on particular issue (For example, one superior was fired because of his bad behavior) when that issue concluded, the coalition disperses. That political coalition has very unclear limitations and it is very flexible in structure and short-term duration. The final level of political action involves networks. It is completely different from coalition this is effect on a particular or specific issue, and networks are isolated associations of individuals looking for social support for their common self-interest. Politically, coalitions are issue oriented where as networks are people oriented. Networks have boundaries and permanent schedule to do unlikely coalition. The below figure (Buelens 2006b, p.489) illustrates the three different levels of political action. Political Tactics:

Political tactics means criticizing someone else for your fault or mistake is exact political tactics. But other political tactics are devious. Some researchers are found a range of political behavior. They were interviewed 87 managers out of 30 different companies, and identified eight important political tactics which are listed below.(Buelens 2006c, p.490) * Attacking or blaming others

* Using information as apolitical tool
* Creating a favorable image (impression management)
* Developing a base of support
* Praising others (ingratiation)
* Forming power coalition with strong allies
* Associating with influential people
* Associating with...
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