After India's independence, most of Maharashtra's political history was dominated by the Indian National Congress party. Maharashtra became a bastion of the Congress party producing stalwarts such as Yashwantrao Chavan, Vasantdada Patil, Shankarrao Chavan, Vasantrao Naik, Vilasrao Deshmukh and Sharad Pawar.
The party enjoyed near unchallenged dominance of the political landscape until 1995 when the Shiv Sena and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) secured an overwhelming majority in the state to form a coalition. After a split in the Congress party, former chief minister Sharad Pawar formed the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), but formed a coalition with the Congress to keep out the BJP-SS combine. Prithviraj Chavan of Congress party is the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra. Maharashtra, 1960-1971
Establishment of the State : In 1956 the Bombay State ceded Kannada-speaking territory to Mysore, but gained Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from Hyderabad State and Vidarbha (Amravati and Nagpur Divisions) from Madhya Pradesh & Berar. In 1960, Bombay State was split into the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Administration : From 1962 to 1979 Maharashtra was administrated by an Indian National Congress (INC) led government
Annals : 1960 : Bombay State split into Gujarat and Maharashtra; Bombay capital of Maharashtra, Marathi provincial language 1960 : Nagpur Pact; Nagpur (Vidarbha) elevated to second capital of Maharashtra; legislative assembly meets here for two weeks in December every year 1961 : communal violence in Nagpur (BBoY 1962)
1962 : state election; INC formed government
1966 : communal incidents in Maharashtra (BBoY 1967)
1966 : Shiv Sena (SHS), Maharashtra Hindu party, founded
1967 : state election; INC formed government
1968 : Hindu-Muslim riots in Aurangabad and Nagpur (BBoY 1969) 1969 : India's first nuclear power station at Tarapur became operational (BBoY 1970)
Social History : In 1961 the population of Maharashtra was 39.9 million, in 1971 50.3 million. The Statesman's Yearbook, based on the census of 1971, gives the literacy rate for Maharashtra in 1971 as 39.8 %; in 1961 80.2 % of the population were Hindus, 7.6 % Muslims, 7 % Buddhists.
Government, Politics and Judiciary
Maharashtra is one of the most advanced states in India, the second most populated state and the third largest state in India. The government, politics and judiciary of Maharashtra is quite similar to those of the other states. The state of Maharashtra is governed by the Governor and the Chief Minister. The Governor is the nominal head of the state and the Chief Minister is the Head of the government. He is the head of the political party which has the maximum number of seats in the State Legislative Assembly. The State Legislative Assembly is also known as the Vidhan Sabha and it is situated in the capital city of Maharashtra, Mumbai.
The Chief Minister has all the executive powers which he can execute taking the advice of his council of ministers. The government of Maharashtra is aided by a bicameral parliament, the lower house and the upper house – the Vidhan Sabha and the Vidhan Parishad. At present the Chief Minister of Maharashtra is Vilasrao Deshmukh from the Congress Party.
The political party which holds the maximum number of seats in the Vidhan Sabha at present is the NCP which had formed the government with a coalition with the Congress. The state of Maharashtra has been nominated 19 seats in the Rajya Sabha and 48 in the Lok Sabha.
The four commissions of the government of Maharashtra are the State Election Commission, Maharashtra Public Service Commission, Union Public Service Commission, and Staff Selection Commission. These commissions have been formed to fulfill certain special responsibilities such as conducting exams which are related to government jobs.
The State Election Commission:
has the responsibility of taking care...