In chapter four, "The political dimension of globalization," Steger did a tremendous job in analyzing the intensification and expansion of political interrelations across the globe. Steger brought up two major issues, which I found intriguing, dealing with how globalization affects modern nation-state system, which traced back to 17th-century, and the demise of the nation-state that gave rise to a “borderless world.” On the other hand, Xiaohua Ma discoursed of reconciliation and forgiveness in her essay, “Constructing a National Memory of War,” showed how War Museums served as an important role in constructing national memory. Altogether, National memory mends the gap between political interrelations across the globe.
The nation-state, a form of political organization originated out of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, served to decide on specific rules of relations within and between states to avoid perpetual disagreements. With the nation-state system, the states manage domestic affairs, everything from education, military to welfare and population. This system strived to put a clear distinction between domestic territory, where the authority of the state was absolute, and the international realm where nations were expected to follow minimal rules to avoid conflicts. This had been a foundation that Steger believed convey “ a sense of existential security and historical continuity” (Steger, 56). However, when this diplomat failed to follow through, states brutishly engage themselves by going to war with each other. Steger made an excellent point on the fuel behind the mental and physical energies required for large-scale warfare, for example, World War I and II, came from “people’s very own belief in the superiority of their own nation” (Steger, 57). Even political scientist David Held pointed out, “ Differences among states are often settled by force…international legal standards afford only minimal protection” (Steger, 58). The needs to make “foreign”...
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