Imanitarian Law Research
ETA is an acronym for “Euskadi Ta Askatasuna” (Basque Homeland and Freedom). Is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, founded in 1959. The main goal of this terrorist organization is get the independence for the Greater Basque Country. ETA is the main organization of the Basque National Liberation Movement and is the most important participant in the Basque conflict. Since 1968, ETA has been held responsible for killing 829 individuals, injuring thousands and undertaking dozens of kidnappings.
ETA has changed its internal structure on several occasions, commonly for security reasons. The group used to have a very hierarchical organization with a leading figure at the top, delegating into three substructures: the logistical, military and political sections. Reports from Spanish and French police point towards significant changes in ETA's structures in recent years. ETA has divided the three substructures into a total of eleven. The change was a response to recent captures, and possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. The leading committee is formed by 7 to 11 individuals, and ETA's internal documentation refers to it as Zuba, an abbreviation of “Zuzendaritza Batzordea” (directorial committee). ETA's armed operations are organized in different “commandos” (groups) generally composed of three to five members, whose objective is to conduct attacks in a specific geographic zone. These groups are coordinated by the “cúpula military” (military cupola). The ETA members could be distinguished between “legalak” (legal ones), those members who do not have police records and live apparently normal lives; “liberados” (liberated) members known to the police that are on ETA's payroll and working full-time for ETA; and “apoyos” (support) who just give occasional help and logistics support to the organization when required. And finally the “quemados” (burnt out), members freed after...
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