Parental, medical, and ecclesiastical authorities have limits on which they are authoritative over. With authority in general there is this thing of ought, we do it because it is something we ought to do. Political authority has this obligation. Political Authority and Parental can force you to do something while as the others can not. Parental has a limited hold on until you are a parent, Political is forever.
2.What does Hampton mean by saying that the claim to divine authority is empty? It is easy to claim but impossible to prove. How do you know what this divine authorization is, you can claim you have it but does that mean I actually have it. There is the part of persuasion and consent that needs to be given in order for divine authority.
3.What are the two kinds of justification that might be offered to support a natural subordination view of political authority? Entitlement in nature- no queen be in humanity. Against argument Macbeth "this way of thinking about the world mixes facts with norms: the world is a place where the relationship of objects, living and nonliving, is fixed by rules about what ought to be'- rules that nature is prepared to enforce in its own way. Consequentiality justification-some people don't reason as well as others. We do things a certain way because it is good for you and good for the community. Good for the subordinate and the subordinator. Against argument: Plato's idea about everyone needs to be given the equal education, the equal chance and see where it goes from there. (Hampton p 13)
4.How does Plato differ from Aristotle with regard to the suitability of women for political rule? Aristotle: Hampton p17 "again as between male and female,...