Qatar also known as state of Qatar is a sovereign Arab state, located in western Asia. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. A strait of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from nearby island state of Bahrain. Qatar has been ruled absolutely by Al-Thani family since the mid 19th century. Formerly a British protectorate noted for pearl hunting, it became independent in 1971. Since, then it has become one of the region’s wealthiest states because of its enormous oil and natural gas revenues. The most important positioning Qatar are held by the members of the al Thani family, or close confidants of the al - Thani family in 1992 Qatar built a strong military ties with united states of America and Qatar is now location of U.S. central command’s forward headquarters and the combined air operations center. Qatar has the world’s highest GDP per capita and proven reserves of oil and natural gas. Qatar tops the list world’s richest countries by Forbes in 2010.Qatar did not emerge as a separate political entity until the mid 19th century when the British recognized sheikh Mohamed bin Thani. This recognition came in the aftermath of maritime Qatari Bahrain war of 1867 – 1868, prior to which the British saw Qatar as a Bahraini dependency of al – Khalifa. In march 1893, at the battle of Wajbah (10 miles west of Doha), Sheikh Jassim defeated the ottomans and forced a treaty that would later form the basis of Qatar emerging as a separate country. The reach of British Empire diminished after World War 2, especially following Indian independence in 1947. Pressure increased on British government in 1950s and British welcomed Kuwait’s declaration of independence in 1961. In 1968 Qatar joined Bahrain and seven other states in a federation, but regional dispute forced Qatar to resign from coalition. Qatar became independent sovereign state on 3 September 1971. In 1991 Qatar played a significant role in Persian Gulf War against Iraqi army. They supported Saudi Arab National Guard units. In 1995 emir Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani seized control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad al Thani while his father was enjoying vacation in Switzerland. Under emir Hamad Qatar has showed notable change like women’s right to vote, drafting a new constitution, and launch of Al Jazeera. Qatar served as headquarter and one of the main launching sites of U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. In December 2010, Qatar was selected to host the 2022 FIFA world cup and thus Qatar will be the first country of Middle East to host the tournament. Qataris celebrate their national day on 18th December. On this day the people of Qatar remembers Sheikh Jassim Bin Mohammad al Thani as a leader in 1878 and the force which supported Sheikh Jassim. Executive Branch
In Qatar, the ruling Al Thani family continued to hold power following the declaration of independence in 1971. The head of state is the Emir, and the right to rule Qatar is passed on within the Al Thani family. Politically, Qatar is evolving from a traditional society into a modern welfare state. Government departments have been established to meet the requirements of social and economic progress. The Basic Law of Qatar 1970 institutionalized local customs rooted in Qatar’s conservative Islamic heritage, granting the Emir preeminent power. There is no electoral system. Political parties are banned. The influx of expatriate Arabs has introduced ideas that call into question the tenets of Qatar’s traditional society, but there has been no serious challenge to Al Thani rule. In February 1972, the Deputy Ruler and Prime Minister, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad, deposed his cousin, Emir Ahmed, and assumed power. This move was supported by the key members of Al Thani and took place without violence or signs of political unrest. On June 27, 1995, the Deputy Ruler, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa deposed his father, Emir Khalifa, in...
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