In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements in
Community and Public Health
Ma'am Chalee S. Reyes
Ma'am Julie J. Tiu
Jenn Lori Y. Gepaya
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly contagious infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below five years old. It is an acute and communicable disease.
Although approximately 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. In about 1% of cases, the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis.
The cost of treatment for polio would range from P200-P2,600 per day, depending upon the degree of involvement. Polio can only be prevented by immunization.
This disease is caused by three types of poliovirus. Poliovirus is a member of the enterovirus subgroup, family Picornaviridae. Enteroviruses are transient inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, and are stable at acid pH. Picornaviruses are small, ether-insensitive viruses with an RNA genome.
There are three poliovirus serotypes (P1, P2, and P3). There is minimal heterotypic immunity between the three serotypes. That is, immunity to one serotype does not produce significant immunity to the other serotypes.The poliovirus is rapidly inactivated by heat, formaldehyde, chlorine, and ultraviolet light.
The polio virus leaves its reservoir, the feces of the person. The portal of exit is the anus. The virus is...