Policy in Organisations

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 122
  • Published : December 3, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
Module - 1
PRINICIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
DEFINITIONS OF MANAGEMENT
• Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims – Koontz and Weihrich • Management is an art of knowing what is to be done and seeing that it is done in the best possible manner – F.W. Taylor • Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate, and control activities of others – Henri Fayol Components of Management

❖ Organizational Activity - Management is a group activity – Management has to coordinate actions and reactions of individuals. ❖ Goal formation – Management has some defined goals – to achieve. It also evaluate the effectiveness of goals. ❖ Organizational survival – management has to use resources available to them efficiently for the survival of resources. ❖ Implementation – policies and programmes are implemented by management. Functions of Management

• The functions of management are : Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling. PLANNING
– Planning is defined as a process of forecasting future problems, situation and events and selection of course of action to be followed. • It is performed by managers at all levels. Managers at top level in organisation devote more time on planning, than managers at lower level. Planning is a prerequisite for doing things. It leads to more effective and faster achievements in any organisation. Planning includes • Determination of objectives

• Forecasting
• Search of alternative course of action
• budgeting
ORGANISING
➢ Organisation is identification and grouping of activities to be performed. Dividing activities among individuals- determine objectives, fit individuals to specific jobs, organizing contributes to efficiency of organisation. It is an arrangement of man, machine, material and money. The step includes • To identify the work to be performed

• To classify or group the work
• To assign these work
• To fix authority and responsibility
• To coordinate the authority and responsibiity
STAFFING
➢ Staffing involves filling, and keeping filled, the positions in the organisation structure. This is done by identifying work – force requirements, inventorying the people available, and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers of, compensating, and training or otherwise developing both candidates and current job holders to accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently. Staffing includes

• Manpower Planning
• Recruitment
• Selection
• Placement and orientation
• Transfer and Promotion
• Training and development of employees
DIRECTING
➢ It is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it in the best possible manner. Direction is the interpersonnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising and motivating the subordinates for the accomplishment of the pre- determined objectives. It consists of four sub functions • Communication – it is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. A successful manager should develop an effective system of communication so that they may issue instructions and receive the reactions of the subordinates and motives them. Leadership –

It is the process by which a manager guides and influences the work of his subordinates. • Motivation – motivation means inspiring the subordinates to work towards accomplishment and achievement of organisational goals and objectives. • Supervision – managers have to personally watch, direct and control the performance of subordinates. In ding these they have to plan the work, give them directions and instructions, guide them and exercise leadership. CONTROLLING

• Controlling is visualizing that actual performance is guided towards...
tracking img