polics an art or a science

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Definig Politics
Doc. Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D.

Defining Politics

• Politics, in the broadest sense, is the activity
through which pepole make, preserve and amend
the general rules under which they live.

Defining Politics

"A political system can be designated as those
interactions through which values are authoritatively
allocated for a society."
(David Easton)
"A political association exists if ... the enforcement of its order is carried out continually within a given territorial
area by the application and threat of physical force."
(Max Weber)


Lasswellian Definition

"Politics is the process of who gets what, when, and how."

politics = allocation



values (resources)


Politics is a process of allocating scarce values.

Defining Politics


political system is any persistent pattern of human
relationships that involves ... power, rule, or authority."
(Robert Dahl)

Defining Politics

• Politics is linked to the phenomena of conflict and cooperation. • Conflict: Competition between opposing forces, refelecting a diversity of opinions, preferences, needs or interest.
• Cooperation: Working together, acheaving goals through
collective action.
• On the one hand, the exitence of rival opinoins, different wants, competing needs and opposing interest guarantees
disagreemnet about the rules under which people live. On the other hand people recognize that, in order to influence these rules or ensure that they are upheld, they must work with
• Disagree: How they should live, Who sould get what? How
sould power and other resources be distributed?

Conflict and Cooperation

Many thinkers maintain that conflict and integration are not two opposed faces but one and the same overall process in
which conflict naturally produces integration, and divisions, by their development, tend naturally toward their own
suppression leading to the coming of the...
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