Doc. Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D.
• Politics, in the broadest sense, is the activity
through which pepole make, preserve and amend
the general rules under which they live.
"A political system can be designated as those
interactions through which values are authoritatively
allocated for a society."
"A political association exists if ... the enforcement of its order is carried out continually within a given territorial
area by the application and threat of physical force."
"Politics is the process of who gets what, when, and how."
politics = allocation
Politics is a process of allocating scarce values.
political system is any persistent pattern of human
relationships that involves ... power, rule, or authority."
• Politics is linked to the phenomena of conflict and cooperation. • Conflict: Competition between opposing forces, refelecting a diversity of opinions, preferences, needs or interest.
• Cooperation: Working together, acheaving goals through
• On the one hand, the exitence of rival opinoins, different wants, competing needs and opposing interest guarantees
disagreemnet about the rules under which people live. On the other hand people recognize that, in order to influence these rules or ensure that they are upheld, they must work with
• Disagree: How they should live, Who sould get what? How
sould power and other resources be distributed?
Conflict and Cooperation
Many thinkers maintain that conflict and integration are not two opposed faces but one and the same overall process in
which conflict naturally produces integration, and divisions, by their development, tend naturally toward their own
suppression leading to the coming of the city of harmony.” Cooperation and conflict are two basic modes of politics
• Some common definitions of politics:
– Politics is the exercise of power
– Politics is the public allocation of values
– Politics is the resolution of conflict
– Politics is the competition among individuals, groups, or states pursuing their interests
The different views of politics examined here are as follows: •
politics as the art of of government
politics as public affairs
politics as compromise and consensus
politics as power and the distribution of resources.
1 Politics as the art of of government
The word politics comes from ancient Greece. Its root is the word polis, which began to be used about 2,800 years ago to
denote a self-governing city (city-state).
Ancient Greek society was divided into a collection of
independent city-states, each of which processed its own
system of government. The largets and the most influential
• POLIS – city-state, classicaly understood to imply the highest or most desirable form of social organization.
• POLITY – A society organized through the exercise of political authority, for Aristotle, rule by the many in the intersets of all. • POLITES – citizen
• POLITIKOS – politician
• POLITIKE – politics as the art of citizenship and government • POLITEIA – constitution, rules of politics
Four categories of residents of the ancient Greek polis
1. Citizens with full legal and political rights:
• Adult free men born legitimately of citizen parents. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, and the obligation to serve when at war.
2. Citizens with legal rights but no political rights:
• Women and underage children, whose political rights and
interests were represented by their adult male relatives
3. Foreigners (citizens of other city-states):
• Full legal rights, but no political rights. Could not vote, could not be elected to office, could not bear arms and...