Policing

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Policing
RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED
UNDER INVESTIGATION
Common law, constitutional,
statutory, and humanitarian
rights of the accused:
¦ A right against unreasonable
searches
¦ A right against unreasonable
arrest
¦ A right against unreasonable
seizures of property
¦ A right to fair questioning
by authorities
¦ A right to protection from
personal harm
These individual rights must
be effectively balanced
against these community
concerns:
¦ The efficient apprehension
of offenders
¦ The prevention of crimes
How does our system of
justice work toward balance?
2P A R T
ISBN: 0-536-09974-X
Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. To Protect and to Serve

Famed police administrator and former New York City Police Commissioner Patrick V. Murphy once said, “It is a privilege to be a police officer in a democratic society.” While Murphy’s words still ring true, many of today’s law enforcement officers might hear in them only the echo of a long-dead ideal, unrealistic for today’s times.

America’s police officers form the front line in the unending battle against crime—a battle that seems to get more sinister and more demanding with each passing day. It is the police who are called when a crime is in progress or when one has been committed. The police are expected to objectively and impartially investigate law violations, gather evidence, solve crimes, and make arrests resulting in the successful prosecution of suspects—all the while adhering to strict due process standards set forth in the U.S. Constitution and enforced by the courts. The chapters in this section of Criminal Justice Today provide an overview of the historical development of policing; describe law enforcement agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; explore issues related to police administration; and discuss the due process and legal environments surrounding police activity.

As you will see, although the police are ultimately charged with protecting the public, they often believe that members of the public do not accord them the respect they deserve, and they feel that the distance between the police and the public is not easily bridged. Within the last few decades, however, an image of policing has emerged that may do much to heal that divide. This model, known as community policing, goes well beyond traditional conceptions of the police as mere law enforcers and encompasses the idea that police agencies should take

counsel from the communities they serve. Under this model, the police are expected to prevent crime, as well as solve it, and to help members of the community deal with other pressing social issues.

5
Policing:
History
and Structure
6
Policing:
Purpose
and
Organization
7
Policing:
Legal
Aspects
8
Policing:
Issues
and
Challenges
ISBN: 0-536-09974-X
Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century, Ninth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. ”

Policing: History
and Structure
O U T L I N E
¦ Introduction
¦ Historical Development
of the Police
¦ American Law Enforcement
Today: From the Federal
to the Local Level
¦ Federal Agencies
¦ State Agencies
¦ Local Agencies
¦ Private Protective Services
L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
¦ Summarize the historical development of policing in America, including the impact of the Prohibition era on American policing. ¦ Describe the nature of scientific police studies, and explain the significance they hold for law enforcement practice today.

¦ Describe the three major levels of public law enforcement in the United States today.
¦ Describe the nature and extent of private protective services in the United States today, and describe the role these services might play in...
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