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  • Topic: Light, Polarization, Fresnel equations
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  • Published : February 15, 2013
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Polarization of light is a phenomenon due to which the vibrations of light are restricted in a particular plane. To detect plane polarized light
Makin g distinction between the unpolarized and plane polarized light cannot be done using the naked eye or the polarizer. So a crystal called analyzer is used to analyze the nature of light.
The intensity of light remains unaffected when the axes of the polarizer and the analyzer are parallel to each other and it becomes minimum when they are perpendicular to each other, Polarization by reflection

An ordinary beam of light on reflection from a transparent medium becomes partially polarized. The degree of polarization increases with the increase in incident angle. At a particular incident angle, the reflected light becomes completely polarized. This incident angle is called as the polarizing angle (p). Brewster’s law

When light is incident at polarizing angle (p) at the interference of a refracting medium µ=tanp,
Where µ-refracting index of the refractive medium
Polarization by scattering
When a beam of light passes through a medium, it gets scattered from the particles constituting the medium, provided the particle’s size is of the order of light’s wavelength. The scattered light viewed in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the beam of light is found to be plane polarized. This is how plane polarized light is produced by scattering. Law of Malus

It states that when a completely plane polarized light beam is incident on an analyzer, I cos^2(
Where I-intensity of the emergent light
-angle between the plane of transmission of the analyzer and polarizer
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