Poetics

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Allegory:
- A narrative in which the agents and actions and sometimes the setting, are conveyed by the author to make sense of the “literal”, primary level of significance as well as a secondary level of significance. 1) Historical and political allegory: in which characters and actions represent historical personages and events. 2) The allegory of ideas: Literal characters represents concepts and the plot allegorizes an abstract doctrine. Personification of abstract entities such as virtues, vices, states of mind. - Allegorical imagery: The personification of abstract entities who perform a brief allegorical action in short passages. > John Keats, To Autumn: Autumnal season as a female figure amid the scenes and activities of harvest. - Sustained allegory: Middle ages, dream vision, narrator falls asleep and experiences an allegoric dream.

Alliteration:
- Alliteration is the repetition of a speech sound in a sequence or nearby words, usually applied to consonance. - Alliterative meter: The verse is unrhymed , each line is divided into two half lines of two strong stresses by a decisive pause.

Assonance:
- Repetition of identical or similar vowels.
- Thou foster child of silence and slow time.

Allusion
- Allusion is passing reference, without explicit identification to a literary or historical person, place, or event, or to another literary passage. - Ironic allusion.
- Allusions are intended to be recognized by the generally educated readers of the author’s time. Imply knowledge shared by author and audience. - T.S. Elliot.

Anti-climax
- A writer’s deliberate drop from the serious and elevated to the trivial and lowly in order to achieve a comic or satiric effect. - Don Juan.

Apostrophe
- Direct and explicit address to an absent person or to an abstract or non human entity. Often the effect is of high formality, or else of a sudden emotional impetus. Many odes are constituted in the mode of an address to a listener who is not able to listen. - John Keats, Ode to a Grecian Urn.

Ballad
- Narrative poem written in deliberate imitation of the form, language and spirit of the traditional ballad. Ballad stanza
- Quatrain: alternate four and three stress lines, usually on second and fourth lines rhyme. - Sir Patrick Spens.
- Set formulas
1) Stock descriptive phrases ‘blood red wine’, ‘milk white steed’ 2) Refrain in each stanza (Edward, Lord Ramndall)
3) Incremental repetition: Line or stanza but with an addition that advances the story

Bathos:
- Unintentional descent when straining to be pathetic or passionate or elevated, the writer overshoots the mark and drops into the trivial or the ridiculous.

Blank Verse
- Lines of iambic pentameter which are unrhymed.
- Closest to the natural rhythms of English speech.
- Paradise Lost.
- Divisions in blank verse poems to set off the page are called verse paragraphs.

Caesura
- When a strong phrasal pause falls within a line. Important for giving variety and providing expressive emphases.

Character
1) Name of literary genre, short and witty, sketch in prose of a distinctive type of person. 2) Persons represented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as possessive particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities as inference by speech (dialogue) and what they do – action. They have motivations; grounds for their temperament. A stable character is one that remains relatively unchanged from beginning to end. Flat character

- Also called a type, a two-dimensional character.
- Built around a single idea or quality and does not have much individualization. Round character
- Complex in temperament and motivation, three dimensional, like real life people.

Characterization
- Showing and telling.
- Showing: the author simply presents the characters talking and acting, leaving it up to the reader to infer motives ad dispositions. - Telling: The author intervenes authoritatively in order to...
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