In partial fulfillment of requirement of the subject:
TBS903 Managing People In Organizations
Summer 2 Semester
Reji George (Student ID: 3759052)
Dr. Payyazhi Jayashree
Submission Date: Tuesday, 24th Aug, 2010
This report reviews the recent developments of the research on Person-Organization fit (P-O) and Person-Job fit (P-J). These are the two most extensively studied fits in context of employee selection. In this report the concepts of P-O & P-J have been discussed reaching a conclusion that P-J fit is considered important during the earlier stages (screening stage) of selection whereas P-O fit is a necessity in later stages (interviews etc) of selection process of an employee. INTRODUCTION
The theory of Person-Environment (PE) assumes that positive responses occur when individuals tend to fit or match the environment. For example, When a good fit exists in between person & environment, PE fit theories of vocational choice propose occurrence of high satisfaction, mental & physical well-being when there is good fit (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984; Holland, 1997). Extensive research supports the proposition that individuals are satisfied with and adjust most easily to jobs that are congruent with their own career-relevant personality types. PE-fit is conceptualized as a general term, under which fall more specific notions of fit. In the recruitment and selection domain, two common forms of fit identified are 1. Person-Job Fit
This is a match between an individual & requirements of a specific job. Companies often pursue that person-job fit so as to match the applicant’s knowledge and skills to the requirements of specific job openings and focus on an applicant’s ability to perform right away without any training.
2. Person-Organization Fit
This is match between an individual & broader organizational attributes. Companies while pursuing P-O fit focus on how well individuals fit with values of their company & culture. They tend to emphasis on hiring people with an ability to work & co-operate with other employees in the company.
Person-Job fit Conceptualization
The concept of person-job fit is the traditional foundation for employee selection (Werbel & Gilliland, 1999). The primary concern was limited to finding applicants with the right skills & abilities for a available job in the organization. PJ fit is conceptualized as the match between individual knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) and demands of the job or the needs/desires of an individual and what is provided by the job (Edwards, 1991; O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). Based on realistic job previews, accurate and realistic job information enables applicants to assess the degree of congruence between their KSA and the job requirements (i.e. PJ fit; Breaugh, 1992; Breaugh & Starke, 2000). Applicants who perceive a fit between their KSA and the job requirements are probable to remain in the selection process and accept a job offer. RJP research has shown that accurate and realistic job information during recruitment and selection is associated with positive work outcomes (e.g. low attrition from recruitment process, high job satisfaction, low voluntary turnover, high work performance). From its very simple inception evolving out of scientific management , the P-J Fit determination process increasingly gained sophistication with identification of both statistically reliable & valid processes that can be used to measure P-J fit.
Operationalizations of P-J Fit
The operational aspect of P-J Fit focuses on needs-supplies and demand-abilities perspective (Edwards, 1991). Therefore, P-J fit can be defined as the fit between desires of a person vs attributes of a job OR abilities of a person vs demands of a job. This needs-supplies and demand-abilities fit are extended conceptualizations of complementary fit. Supplementary fit does not...