Pneumatic Tyre Characteristics

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  • Topic: Force, Friction, Tire
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The purpose of this technical report is to communicate the results of the Pneumatic Tyre Characteristics laboratory by investigating the effect of cornering force on slip angle. The technical report is presented to the academic staff of the Engineering Systems Department at the Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham. It is assumed that the reader is fully familiar with the experiment and with the equipment on which it is preformed.

Experimental Conditions
•For this particular experiment the gain of the output for the strain gauges are set to 1 as 0 to 8 degrees slip angle is been measured. If smaller angles are measured a larger gain may be required.

•The total displacement of the trolley that runs along the track is approximately 2.17 meters. However, this may slightly vary in the results, especially with higher slip angles due to the reaction force acting on the reversible hydraulic motor that drives the track. For consistency the corresponding point for each distance is taken in the results.

•The current details and condition of the tested tyre are given. - Manufacture: Avon.
- Dimension: 710 / 22.0 – 13.
- Condition: Generally worn all around with patches of the tyre (approximately 60mm in diameter) in worse condition on the inside of the wheel.

•The tyre was tested at 14, 16 and 18 psi pressure. For each test at each angle increment the air valve is pointing downwards purely for consistency as the tyres circumference may vary. The increments for each test are as follows. - 0 – 5 degrees in 0.25 degree increments.

- 5 – 8 degrees in 0.5 degree increments.

•The experimental equipment is set to output 1000 points of displacement and side force. The computer capture rate is set to 50Hz and a total run time of 20sec

•Final experimental conditions that should be mentioned include: - Before the conduction of the experiment the camber of the wheel should be checked and adjusted to zero degrees. - The track is manufactured to have a sand paper surface. This is important to exert a sufficient side force on the tyre and is in good condition. - For each experiment, initially slip pads are used under the wheel as the mechanical mechanism used to apply the vertical force is applied at a radius and therefore would give an unwanted offset. - A constant vertical load of 1.5kN is applied to the tyre. This load is kept consistent by a mechanism which includes a beam and counter balance weights.

Experimental Results

The experimental results are outlined below.

The calibration factors given are:
- Displacement trackway 0.655 m/volt.
- Side Force 1.89 kN/volt with -0.07v being 0kN.

Figures 1, 2 and 3 below show the cornering force versus displacement along the track for 14, 16 and 18 psi respectively.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4 below shows the cornering force versus the slip angle for 14, 16 and 18 psi at 1.4 meters along the track. The tabulated data is shown in appendix 1.

Figure 4

Figure 5 shows the coefficient of friction versus the slip angle for 14, 16 and 18 psi. The tabulated data is shown in appendix 2.

Figure 5

Figure 6 shows experimental data from Milliken and Milliken [1]

Figure 6

Observations and Discussion

Figures 1, 2 and 3 show the cornering force versus displacement along the track for 14, 16 and 18 psi respectively. The graphs are achieved using Microsoft Excel with the calibration factors and offset accounted for.

Figure 4 shows the cornering force versus the slip angle for 14, 16 and 18 psi at 1.4 meters along the track. The general trend for each psi show that as the slip angle is increased the lateral force is increased. The elastic, transitional and frictional changes can be seen. The peaks of the curves remain roughly constant and slowly begin to fall off. The transitional range for the 18 psi extends over a sizable slip angle range as opposed to being more abrupt for 14 psi. The...
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