Pmbok Chapter 2 Summary

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Jonathan Martin & Thomas Finnerty
08347751 & 09533699

Summary of chapter two

Project life cycle and organisation

12/09/12

4BCM1

Headings:
1. Project life cycle
2. Projects V. Operational work
3. Stakeholders
4. Organizational Influences on Project Management

Project life cycle and organisation:
The life cycle structure can be broken down into four headings. * Starting the project
* Organizing the project
* Carrying out the project work &
* Closing the project

The above chart shows time against cost and staff effort. Cost and staffing are low at the start, then peak as work is carried out and then drop as the project closes. The reason for this is that the bulk of your expenditure will happen when more resources are being used. Stakeholder influences, risk and uncertainty are greatest at the start. This happens because stakeholders need to have input at the beginning as it will be too late to make changes when construction begins. The level of risk and uncertainty is high because nothing has been put in motion and phases haven’t started. This makes it hard to measure. To significantly influence the final product, without impacting on costs changes must be made at the start of the project. The level of control is important for any project. Larger complex projects may require an additional level of control. This may be multiple teams or even specialised teams for specific phases. The work carried out may benefit from being divided into phases. Product V. Project life cycle:

The product life cycle consists of generally sequential, non-overlapping phases determined by the need and manufacturing of the organisation. The last phase in a project could be the handing over of a building to the client. The project life cycle occurs in one or more phases of the product life cycle. The project life cycle = a service or result is an objective Example:

A car manufacturer may have a new model to go to manufacture. Within this products life cycle there may be many small projects (e.g. Safety in the vehicle) that are over looked by a higher authority and brought together to increase the likelihood of success. Project phases:

* They are divisions within a project
* When used properly they give extra control where needed * Also used effectively to manage the completion of a major deliverable * They are typically sequential but can overlap
* They make up part of the project life cycle
* They can break up a project into subsets for ease of management, planning and control * The need and number of phases depend on the size , complexity and impact of a project * When a sequential phase closes some form of transfer for the work product is produced. (phase deliverable) * Phase end gives you a point to reassess the effort and to change or terminate the project. (milestone) * The work done to reach these milestones is normally distinct. It can involve different organisations & skill sets. * Phases need an extra degree of control to be achieved.

Project governance across the project life cycle:
1. It should be described in the project management plan
2. Decisions must be made regarding who will be involved
3. Management review is used if a phase has not been completed and another needs to start. (over-lapping) 4. Beginning a new phase also gives a chance to revalidate (e.g. if a new phase doesn’t need new equipment there’s no need for procurement)

All these decisions are made by the people who have the authority to do so as stated in the project management plan. Phase-to-phase relationships:
Sequential relationship: A phase can only start once the previous has been completed. Overlapping relationships: It’s where a phase starts prior to completion of a previous one. Also known as fast tracking (Increases risk) Iterative relationship: Only one phase is planned at any given time & planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on...
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