Pleasure Centers in the Mammalian Brain

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FI,EAguitE:

rTS NEUROAUATOIiICA'. AS!'EOTS

$'i ?;lE

IIAMtrAXJ.IAN

Bn,q]ll,

A:qD

SPEC1JLAT

TON6 ON

rIS

EVOLUT IENABY F?NOTION

By W1L11ar GoldBnl.th

July 22r

1961

.C'

navlgf,ln* tho ltieraturo deeltns with thr

of pleaaurg and lta nguroanaiomlcal rela!lonshlp6 t,o lhs Earrnat lan brain, tt becomes clEar ihai ,preclso d6flnltlon of, rploaBure lE phcnoiranoll

lDirer anlmels, lhe problen has b6€n mei by oquailng pl€&sure wlt,h apper6ni drlv6 saitafaotfon (9)j or ot&tes ,f, hom-

difftcult.'l1lth

respco!

io

ooBtesls

(?

). iExpertoent,elly, fe.l1ng6

of

ploa€ure

lnferred by the frequency of vol,untary 8r,1nuLEt16n by the anr.msl of tho rr6q undor lnvos_ ttgatlon, and rsqur.rlns th€ anlnaL, to perform soaE ta.ak ln order t,o eern stlllulatlon,. wi.tch ellnloatoa the poE61bl1tty ol lnyolunt,&ry 16f,l.ex stlllul,atlon 8si off by t,ha lnlirst onr. ?hlg llelhod also prohs.ve boen

\

quantltatl!e lndlcetleh of 1n!ensrty of fe€llna ( to). ( -The Breat expanelon of thB oortex 1n man placos hl8 braln ln a apeclal oateg6ry, anal E&ko, lhe doflnltlon of pleasur€ more aiffteuft,;/ti la trua ibat a subJeci can verball,y report fiettnga ol plae.sure, but it 16 e.Iso analomleally Eppar.ni th&t nan oan experlenee eorttcaLLy orl.entsd pleaaora6

yld€e

sur6e unavallabls

io

Lo?ror forDe. Thu6, plgqsure

ln rlan can r.anga b6t!r66h ihs manlrestatlon ol phy8loloalcal. nsoat rsductloBa to ihe €xpr6sclon o, a hu[an relatlinellp (1a;. goo"o".f a recent psy6hologlcal atudy aim6d ai the precise doflnttlon ol pl.eaauro 1n ,[an has snEmerateal the follow_ lnt ,!!&J or &Bp6cis, whlch say be sald t,o appljr to aIt pls&aurea: l) BelnB dFa,rn to r"he pleasure eourc6 z) treeIloa of enersy p.."""iii-riI-.'" 3) Buoyancy 4) Helaxat 1on 5) SoftnssB h, sarae 9f and we rl'lth unr,ralltv ?) Fo61lna or passivity (1) In the thooretlcal and speculatiy6 dl6cusslon qlv6n bslon, {ploaeuren may refcr to any of th6 &bove

ro 1ea sa

;

d8llnitlons, bui thlg !{iLl be made cleat ln iha context of t,he dlgeuqslorl" ':: i'In 193?, pepaz hlDothoelzed

that

edot,lonal.

erlproaelon and cor!1cal onotl.on ,ra6 rrOrphologl.d&1L, centerod ln, 'rthe hypoihalaElqe, t,ho antarlor thala,nlc nuclell, tnc gyrl cinSutli r-1e

€.n.!

. their interoonnecttone," (sfaE lrirr'0"";.J"r,l, ',

hlppocamlTuF,

'1t,he areae yrliioh, wh6n st,lnu1at,ei, pr.rduce aaDaailons are located ln I;hls general

, ' -.' area, +.hotgh ,." r. .rr 1nnanandhi6horprl(at65cctrte1ncortlca1ar€&E alao produce th-^$o f,eelirrgs.

pleesu:.u

'.i-.;

,r,

,,)r_-r:' n.l-,':4 _:^ 1}

:''

,lI

ll

the quGstlon e.rla6g, 1s lt, proper to 6pgak of plgasUro rcontersi ag Such? A cenlcr Eay bo defined qs se locoa of tntsgratlon of tho Conponent, aci,iy1t,les of a total pettern, tbe deNow

Etruclr.on ot nhloh may le&va lndlvldual conpon6a!g or lgager eonplexe! of the pait6rn lnt,act.,r (€)

Thlre lg ng pleaauro ceaier aocordln8 t,o ttrs flrst pari ol thtE d6f1nit1on, alnse iher€ 16 aE yei ilo phyeloaLly defi.ned 'rpleasure patt,ern,r 1n reIl,

oithir physlolo6lca11y or neu ro log1 e&11y. However, on a st,rr.otly anaiornLqal basl,c, ilth sp€clal referenca t,o tbo &ldbraln, and vi6w1n8 plsasure aa a ba6lc eo_tlvaL!-o!. oollrstlonal .elggsS hav6 beon propoBed rhloh lnvolvs t,b6 pleaEUra giruciura e"

i ?ro r€paraie egtivailonal arca6 have been raportEd ln t,he rat brsln, one of whicb, wh6h sttEu1ated, oairses only avold&nce reaotlong, the oiher only appto.eh. Th6y ar6 lnlt6et,el,y rel&ted anatoltlically, t)te approaeh area bolng lenedlatsly 1al,ar&i io ihe aeoldaneE ar6a, bui thcy ero d6f,-

1nl8ol., diE+"tnct (18). i ?he approeobr or ioettly6 !'otlvetion, ayston ls located in ths o6dla1 forEbraln bundlor- runirtag through i,ho :,a!eraL h:rpa!hal&mua to tha olfactory

E-;;,-

,u

bulb, ihefl baeklrard io ths tlasclat6ral i€gmontuB (B)" In l,!ne slth th6se f!ndlng8, Otd.s haB p!-eaented evl.d€neB...
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