Plant layout is very essential and needs consideration and attention from the very beginning so as to avoid subsequent problems. Though one can think of several layouts but the best one is obviously the one, which is both very systematic and cheap. It is arrangement of machines, scientific use of work area, easy and convenient transport system, easy sorting out of materials and processing different parts. Since the area has already been selected and it is neither possible to neither change that nor expand that as per needs of the factory therefore layout is to be adjusted accordingly. Thus layout is disposition of various facilities and services of the plant within the specified area. It is arrangement of location of different machines and plants within the factory in such a way that there is minimum possible cost, the maximum output and the best quality product. In it all the requirements connected with production like the raw materials, machines, tools, fixtures etc. to be properly cared from the very beginning with the design of the factory. It is the agreement with the main focus that each operation is performed without the least inconvenience.
OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT
Plant layout is made with certain objectives in view. One objective is that the supervision of the production work should be easy and the shops should remain neat and clean. The working conditions should be not only better but safe as well. The goods of better quality should be produced at cheap rates and it should be very easy to handle the materials. It should be transported in a minimum time at a minimum cost. Then he objective is also to have maximum use of he space area and also increased productivity. Material waste should be minimum and all bottlenecks and congestion points should be avoided. It should be such that there is speeding of production and maintenance of plant is both easy and simple. Still another objective is that the supervisory staff is in a position to control production and to the extent possible production cycle time is reduced. There should be scope for improved work methods and introducing changes, but at the same time it needs be ensured that there is minimum need for effecting changes. Sufficient space and scope should be there for better working conditions for all categories of employees.
PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT
Scientific and systematic laying out f plant should be based on certain sound principles, which have come to stay with the passage of time. One such principle is that the layout should be quite flexible so that if there is need for re-arrangement that can be done without least inconvenience and not by much spending. In our modern days, machines and equipment models very rapidly change and in a god layout there should be sufficient flexibility in introducing changes in production process. It is known as principle of flexibility. 2.
The other principle is that of integration. By this it is meant that in a god outlay men, machinery, materials and other related activities should be integrated in such a way that these can give the best production results. All production center facilities should be provided in a logical way. 3.
Third principle is that of safety and healthy environments. This means that everywhere in the factory working place should be safe. The environments should be dust and noise free. There should be minimum of bad smell of chemicals from outside, because bad working conditions reduce working efficiency and adversely affect production. These also lower the morale of the workers and create a lot of dissatisfaction. These also spoil employer-employee relationship. In brief this principle implies that the working conditions should be such that the maximum number of employees get the maximum satisfaction and safety. 4.
Then is the principle of maximum space utilization. By this principle what is understood is that in a good layout...
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