Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. within the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product. According to Riggs, “the overall objective of plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output – quantity and quality.” According to J. L. Zundi, “Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized. The efficiency of production depends on how well the various machines; production facilities and employee’s amenities are located in a plant. Only the properly laid out plant can ensure the smooth and rapid movement of material, from the raw material stage to the end product stage. Plant layout encompasses new layout as well as improvement in the existing layout. It may be defined as a technique of locating machines, processes and plant services within the factory so as to achieve the right quantity and quality of output at the lowest possible cost of manufacturing. It involves a judicious arrangement of production facilities so that workflow is direct. Principles regarding the plant layout
A scientific criterion for determining a good Plant Layout:
Integration of men, money, materials and machines and support services in order to get the optimum output of resources. 2. Cubic space utilization:
Utilization of both horizontal and vertical spaces and height is very important to use the space as much as possible. 3. Minimum distance:
Minimum travel of men and material should be implemented means; the total distance travel by the men and material should be minimized as much as possible. Further straight line movements should be promoted. 3. Floor:
Arranging the floor to move the material/finished products in forward direction towards the final stage. 4. Maximizing coordination:
Entry into and disposal from any department should be in such manner that it is most convenient to the issuing or receiving departments. The layout should be consider as a whole. 5. Minimum flexibility:
The layout should be able to modify when necessary.
6. Maximum accessibility:
All servicing and maintenance points should be readily accessible. For example; equipment should not be placed against a wall because necessary servicing or maintenance cannot be carried out easily. Further; equipments or other necessary units keep in front of a fuse box will impede the work of the electrician. 7. Safety security:
Due consideration to industrial safety methods is necessary. Care must be taken not only of the persons operating the equipment, but also of the passes-by, who may be required to go behind equipment as the back of which may be unsafe. 8. Minimum handling:
Reduce the material handling to the minimum. Material being worked on should be kept at working height and never have to be placed on the floor if it is to be lifted later. The following principles also can be taken in to account when planning for a good plant layout; •The geographical limitations of the site;
•Interaction with existing or planned facilities on site such as existing roadways, drainage and utilities routings; •Interaction with other plants on site;
•The need for plant operability and maintainability;
•The need to locate hazardous materials facilities as far as possible from site boundaries and people living in the local neighborhood; •The need to prevent confinement where release of flammable substances may occur; •The need to provide access for emergency services;
•The need to provide emergency escape routes for on-site personnel; •The need to...