(Production of Vinegar from Banana Peels)
Engr. Caesar P. Llapitan
Balod, Marie Paz
Edraira, Marie Grace
Jurado, Orencio III
ChE - V
Vinegar Making from Banana Peelings
I. Raw Materials
For every kilogram of banana peels (Cavendish or saba), add 170 g of sugar, 225 g vinegar (starter liquor), 0.879 g bakers yeast, 907 g water, and 7.05 g ammonium sulfite.
Vinegar making is a fermentation of sugar into acetic acid. This fermentation for vinegar production from banana peelings would make use of the stored sugar or starch in the banana peels.
First, the banana peelings are collected and washed with tap water to remove any intact dirt. Rotary knife cutter is used to shred the banana peels. Water is added and these are then boiled in a vat at 82°C. The peelings are mashed and filtered using an extractor. Ammonium sulfite is then added which serves as a reducing agent, and also sugar is added. The mixture is then allowed to cool. A pinch of bakers yeast is added for the fermentation to proceed. It is allowed to ferment for 8 days. Its acetic acid content will be 10 %. A cup of vinegar as a starter liquor is added for further fermentation. It is allowed to ferment for 27 days. This time, its acetic acid content will be about 4-6%. The product undergoes filtration to remove precipitates. After which it is subjected to boiling at about 65 - 70°C to avoid the growth of microorganisms.
Finally, the product is then stored in a holding tank ready for bottling and packaging.
III. Environmental Constraints
The wastes in the production of vinegar are suspended solids from backwashing the filter press, dead yeast, and carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is absorbed using water. Dead yeast will be collected from the yeast tub and can be used as a fertilizer.
The suspended solids are not environmental hazards therefore, the water from backwashing could be used for watering plants.
1) Amount of water recycled from the vat is stored in a tank and will be used in the next batch, thus, it is not included in the calculation for first pass.
2) Three (3) percent of the liquor from fermenter II goes out as steam from the pasteurizer.
3) Yeast is stored in the yeast tub for the new batch operation.
Let: P = kg of vinegar produced ready for bottling
P = 10,000 kg vinegar (1 batch operation)
Water to Banana Peel ratio = 907 g (kg/1000g) = 0.907
Yeast to Banana Peel ratio = 0.879 g (kg/1000g) = 8.79 x 10-4
Starter Liquor to Banana Peel ratio = 225 g = 0.225
Sugar to Banana Peel ratio = 170 g = 0.17
Ammonium Sulfite to Banana Peel ratio = 7.05 g = 7.05 x 10-3
Raffinate to Banana Peel ratio = 0.62
Note: ASBP solution refers to the mixture of sugar, ammonium sulfite, and banana peel extract.
OVERALL MASS BALANCE
F9 = 10,000 kg
(from Perry’s ChE Handbook, 10-20% loss of yeast) [pic]
For Fermenter II, (aerobic)
From the reaction,
From Timmerhaus, [pic]V = 1 – 3 m/s (ideal)
Assume [pic]V = 2 m/s (velocity of the fluid)
Thus, the flow is turbulent!
Assume Commercial Steel Pipe: [pic]...