Planning

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Planning means looking ahead and chalking out future courses of action to be followed. It is a preparatory step. It is a systematic activity which determines when, how and who is going to perform a specific job. Planning is a detailed programme regarding future courses of action. It is rightly said “Well plan is half done”. Therefore planning takes into consideration available & prospective human and physical resources of the organization so as to get effective co-ordination, contribution & perfect adjustment. It is the basic management function which includes formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources.According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guesses”. Planning is deciding best alternative among others to perform different managerial functions in order to achieve predetermined goals.| According to Koontz & O’Donell, “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap between where we are to, where we want to go. It makes possible things to occur which would not otherwise occur”. Steps in Planning Function

Establishment of objectives
Establishment of Planning Premises
Choice of alternative course of action
Formulation of derivative plans
Securing Co-operation
Follow up/Appraisal of plans
Planning Importance in Management
Planning may be broadly defined as a concept of executive action that embodies the skill of anticipating, influencing, and controlling the nature and direction of change. - McFarland Importance of Planning

Planning increases the organization's ability to adapt to future eventualities Planning helps crystallize objectives
Planning ensures a relatedness among decisions
Planning helps the company to remain more competitive in its industry Adequate planning reduces unnecessary pressures of immediacy Planning reduces mistakes and oversights:
Planning ensures a more productive use of the organization's resources Planning makes control easier
Planning enables the identification of future problems and makes it possible to provide for such contingencies Planning enables the identification of future problems and makes it possible to provide for such contingencies Planning increases the effectiveness of a manager

2.Evolution of Classical Approach to Management
Traditional process of learning is either through obsevation and experiment. Nature or environment is considered uniform and when we observe certain phenomenon or events uniformly leading to the same result or results, we conclude a cause and effect relationship between the two. This is learning by observation or in other words by experience. Earlier thinkers on management followed this approach in developing theories of management. Learning principally is through emphirical process and through analysis of the data collected through observation. Draw the principles of managment by looking at and anyalysing the jobs that all managers commonly do. This approach served as a starting point for pioneers on management science to verify the validity and improve the applicability of the principles and practices of management. Analysis of observd data is what constitute a case study. The observational method of case study helps arriving at logical conclusions about past experience and to test the same as standards for future events. The German sociolists, Max Weber followed the classical approach and developed his theory of Bureaucracy, which portrays the structure anddesign of organisation charqacterised by a hierarchy of authority, formalised rules and regulations that serve to guide the coordinated functioning of an organization. Basic Postulates of the Classical Approach by Max Weber

1. Management of an organization is considered as a chain of inter-related functions. The study of the scope and features...
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