FOUR PLANES OF DEVELOPMENT
Fundamental development takes place from conception to 24 years of age during this, Montessori observed four distinct periods, or "planes", in human development, extending from birth to six years, from six to twelve, from twelve to eighteen, and from eighteen to twenty-four. These four planes of development were used to describe the path of development every child follows, from birth to adulthood. She saw different characteristics, needs, learning modes, and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes. she also recognized that one could only experience complete and fulfillment of potential if the need of each period were fully met, before moving on the next stage. She even called for educational approaches specific to each period. Montessori identifies the four Planes as:
Infancy 0- 6 years
Childhood 6-12 years
Adolescence 12-18 years
Maturity 18-24 years
These planes are also called “SERIES OF RE-BIRTH” Each plane of development provides the optimal time for learning in specific areas; the best time to learn a skill completely so that it forms part of the human being. Learning skills outside of these optimal times is less effective and more difficult for the child. As educators, schools and parents alike, it is critical that we educate in complete harmony with these planes of development. These planes are interlinked. traditional education is based on assumption of linear development which can be explained with the help of following diagram,
Maria Montessori compared these four planes with lifecycle of butterfly. . butterflies and moths have a "complete" life cycle. This means that there are four separate stages just like human being, each of which looks completely different and serves a different purpose in the life of the insect. The egg is a tiny, round, oval, or cylindrical object which turns into The caterpillar (or larva) which is the long, worm-like stage of the butterfly or moth. It is the feeding and growth stage. The third one is the chrysalis (or pupa) which is the transformation stage. The adult (or imago) is colorful butterfly or moth usually seen. It is the reproductive and mobile stage for the species. There is similarity between first and third pane and between second and fourth plane.during first plane constructive formation of both physic and psychology of infant takes place similarily.fourth plane is also challenging physically and psychologically. during second plane the child has already adapt the environment and already has an attitude of ‘I want to do it myself’ he is more calm just as in fourth plane.these similarities and characteristics of each plane is explained in detailed with the explanation of each plane below. Infancy (0 - 6 years)
This is the Plane of fundamental importance for the formation of the individual. The first plane extends from birth to around six years of age. During this period, Montessori observed that the child undergoes (to bear) striking physical and psychological development. The first plane child is seen as a concrete, sensorial explorer and learner engaged in the developmental work of psychological self-construction and building functional independence. Montessori introduced several concepts to explain this work, including the absorbent mind, sensitive periods, and normalization.
The infant is fragile and need vaccines. there legs are short.there torso bulges. their skin and hair are soft .they builds up immune system. By the time of 2 years the child can sit, crowl, walk. His tooth appears. The moments of the child are very reflexive. His usual development takes place. The process of mylienisation of neurons take place & because of mylienisation & ausification, he ties to control over his arms & legs. The infant from 0-3 is identified by Montessori as a "Spiritual Embryo", as the infant has, within him/herself "potentials", which determine his or her development. There exists within...