The topic of national culture has received considerable attention in the general management literature, "Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster"(Hofstede, 1981). In a landmark study, Hofstede argued that managers are influenced not only by the job that needs to be done; but also by the cultural values they bring to an organization. Driving the interest in national culture is the increase in strategic alliances across the globe. Businesses collaborate more closely with their global suppliers and governments collaborate more closely with other governments on such science projects as space stations and alternative energy sources. As these alliances increase, the significance of cultural differences also increases (Bartlett CA & Ghoshal S, 1989). Those collaborative international projects have got plans to be made, financing to be negotiated, resources to be organized, schedules to be created, and activities to be controlled. However they are more complex because they often require cooperation from organizations or groups whose managers come from countries where management processes and decision-making behaviors are very different and unlike. One underlying factor that helps to explain and understand these differences is the national culture in which these managers have been raised, educated, and trained.
This research will clarify national culture and its importance and influence upon organizations and management processes, and explore the role of national culture in the management of organizations and large-scale international projects.
2. Research Questions
1. cultural dimensions describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, what are these dimensions? And how they can be related to attitude? 2. What is the influence of national...