* 1 Etymology and History
* 2 Legal aspects
* 3 In academia and journalism
* 3.1 Journalism
* 3.2 Sanctions for student plagiarism
* 4 Plagiarism on the Internet
* 5 Literary theft and other arts
* 6 Praisings of plagiarism in art
* 7 Self-plagiarism
* 7.1 The concept of self-plagiarism
* 7.2 Self-plagiarism and codes of ethics
* 7.3 Factors that justify reuse
* 8 As a practical issue
* 9 Organizational publications
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as "the wrongful appropriation, close imitation, or purloining and publication, of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work." The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, while in the previous centuries authors and artists were encouraged to "copy the masters as closely as possible" and avoid "unnecessary invention."
The 18th century new morals have been institutionalized and enforced prominently in the sectors of academia and journalism, where plagiarism is now considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics, subject to sanctions like expulsion and other severe career damage. Not so in the arts, which have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process, with plagiarism being still tolerated by 21st century artists.
Plagiarism is not a crime but is disapproved more on the grounds of moral offence.
Etymology and History
The use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else's work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses." This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by... [continues]
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