PLACES OF ARTICULATION
The active articulator usually moves in order to make the constriction. The passive articulator usually just sits there and gets approached. A sound's place of articulation is usually named by using the Latin adjective for the active articulator (ending with an "o") followed by the Latin adjective for the passive articulator. For example, a sound where the tongue tip (the "apex") approaches or touches the upper teeth is called an "apico-dental". Most of the common combinations of active and passive articulator have abbreviated names (usually leaving out the active half). These are the abbreviated names for the places of articulation used in English: Bilabial
The articulators are the two lips. (We could say that the lower lip is the active articulator and the upper lip the passive articulator, though the upper lip usually moves too, at least a little.) English bilabial sounds include [p], [b], and [m]. [pic] Labio-dental
The lower lip is the active articulator and the upper teeth are the passive articulator. English labio-dental sounds include [f] and [v]. [pic] Dental
Dental sounds involve the upper teeth as the passive articulator. The active articulator may be either the tongue tip or (usually) the tongue blade. Dentals are the initial sounds of words ‘thin’ and ‘that’.[pic] Alveolar
Alveolar sounds involve the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator. The active articulator may be either the tongue blade or (usually) the tongue tip. English alveolar sounds include [t], [d], [n], [s], [z], [l]. [pic] Post alveolar
Post alveolar sounds involve the area just behind the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator. The active articulator may be either the tongue tip or (usually) the tongue blade. English postalveolars include [[pic]r ]. [pic] Linguists have traditionally used very inconsistent terminology in referring to the post alveolar POA. Some of the terms you may encounter for it include: palato-alveolar, alveo-palatal, alveolo-palatal, and even (especially among English-speakers) palatal. Many insist that palato-alveolar and alveo (lo)-palatal are two different things -- though they don't agree which is which. "Post alveolar", the official term used by the International Phonetic Association, is unambiguous, not to mention easier to spell. Palato-alveolar
These are produced by two simultaneous articulations:
a) the blade of tongue articulates against the teeth ridge. b) The front of tongue is raised towards the hard palate. e.g. initial sounds in words ‘ shampoo’, ‘jug’, ‘cheese’ are palato-alveolar sounds.
The active articulator is the tongue body and the passive articulator is the hard palate. The English glide [j] is a palatal. Velar[pic]
The active articulator is the tongue body and the passive articulator is the soft palate. English velars include [k], [g] and also ‘ing’ sound in word ‘knowing’. [pic] Glottal
This isn't strictly a place of articulation, but they had to put it in the chart somewhere. Glottal sounds are made in the larynx. For the glottal stop, the vocal cords close momentarily and cut off all airflow through the vocal tract. In [h], the vocal cords are open, but close enough together that air passing between them creates friction noise. [pic]
MANNER OF ARTICULATION
• Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion (blocking) of the oral vocal tract, and no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d ɡ/ (voiced). If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion; if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, as well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel. The shape and position of the tongue (the place of articulation) determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds. All...