The Effect of Microwave Radiation on the Respiration Rate of Phaseolus vulgaris Aerobic Celluar Respiration is a process that is carried out by most living organisms. The process is a series of chemical reactions that occur within the mitochondrial matrix and cristae of eukaryotic cells. Following the anaerobic process of glycolysis, partially broken down sugar molecules enter the matrix of the mitochondria where they are further reduced by oxygen. In the process, a small amount of ATP is created and a large amount of electrons are freed and carried to the electron transport chain where they are used in a process that creates 32 ATP molecules from ATP synthase, an enzyme located in the cristae of the mitochondria. While the process of cellular respiration is very complex, it can be simplified in terms of the molecules that are expended in the reaction and those that are produced. The following chemical equation summarizes this process: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
In summary, the process oxidizes glucose to produce carbon dioxide and water which are both byproducts that are not used by the organism. The energy released in this process produces ATP which is used by cells as easily accessed energy. It is possible to detect respiration with the substance calcium hydroxide which absorbs carbon dioxide in the air and converts it to solid calcium carbonate. The experimental setup will be to put several seeds in a test tube that contains calcium hydroxide and then to place the test tubes upside down in a beaker of water so that no new air can enter the test tube. The calcium hydroxide will react with any carbon dioxide that is produced and remove the gas from the test tube air space. As the seeds respire, they take in oxygen and let out carbon dioxide; but the carbon dioxide is being absorbed by the calcium hydroxide. As a result, the number of gas molecules in the sealed test tube actually decreases as the seed respires and water is sucked up into the...
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