Democracy is a political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people, by consensus (consensus democracy), by direct referendum (direct democracy), or by means of elected representatives of the people (representative democracy). The term comes from the Greek word (dēmokratía) "rule of the people", which was coined from (dêmos) "people" and (Kratos) "power". There is no universal definition of the term democracy, people like the late USA president ABRAHAM LINCOLN define democracy as “The government of the people, for the people and by the people” which means :
Of the people means the government derives all its powers from the people
For the people means the government is there to serve the interest of the people
By the people means the people elect those who are to govern on their behalf According to Nnoli(20033) he defined democracy as the system of government usually involving freedom of the individual in various aspects of life, equality among citizens, justice in the relations between the people and the government and the participation of the people in choosing those in government. Democracy is devided into direct democracy where by all adult citizen of a community participate fully in a decision making on matter brought for discussion.Decision are by the popular vote YES or NO.The Anthens are the first people to practices direct democracy. It is mostly conducted in the small populated areas like classrooms in the election of the Class representative. The other type of democracy is indirect democracy where by different groups in community elect reoresentative and give them mandate to make public decision on their behalf.The representative may be one person or small group of people.Indirect democracy originated in Europe during the emergence of capitalism. In this kind of democracy periodic elected leaders are placed into power and are removed from the power through periodic election, it mostly done in highly populated areas. Also these representative is divided into three categories which are parliamentary democracy Which is kind of representative democracy where by the executive is a part of the legislature here king or queen is the head of the state and prime minister is the head of government example Britain,Spain,Holland,Beigium and so on, the other category is Presidential democracy where by the executive and the legislature are independent of each other.The president is the head of both state and government and holds office for a fixed period example USA
In order for the democracy to stand in any society the following are some of the essential pillars of the architecture of democracy; First, free and fair elections lend legitimacy to democracy by preventing one person or a small group in society from imposing certain vested interests on the general population. No one person or group should exercise a monopoly of power over the election process. In a democracy, political parties can be formed and can campaign without intimidation. Some countries require political parties to have a minimum level of popular support before they can participate in elections. All political parties must also have access to a free media and other means to broadcast their election manifestos. The electoral process is supervised, monitored and carried out by a neutral body, often an election commission. In Tanzania free and fair election is conducted though in other hand it is not practiced since some political parties are given more chances to broadcast their election manifestos than others. For example CCM(Chama cha Mapinduzi) is given priority to broadcast its election manifesto than other political parties like TLP(Tanzania labour Party), CHADEMA (Chama cha demokrasia na Maendeleo), CUF(Civic United Front) and others. Also there is no neutral electoral commission as the commissioner of National Electoral Commission (NEC) is appointed by the President and it works under the President office...
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