Pill Camera

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INTRODUCTION
In the past, doctors have been diagnosing problems associated with the small intestine-such as cancer, ulcers and polyps-by using X-rays or exploratory surgery. These techniques are both unpleasant and painful, as is surgery. The advancement of our technology today has lead to its effective use and application to the medical field. One effective and purposeful application of the advancement of technology is the process of endoscopy, which is used to diagnose and examine the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of the patents. It has been reported that this process is done by inserting an 8mm tube through the mouth, with a camera at one end, and images are shown on nearby monitor, allowing the medics to carefully guide it down to the gullet or stomach. However, despite the effectiveness of this process to diagnose the patients, research shows that endoscopy is a pain stacking process not only for the patients, but also for the doctors and nurses as well. From this, the evolution of the wireless capsule endoscope has emerged. Reports, that through the marvels of miniaturization, people with symptoms that indicate a possible in the gastrointestinal tract can now swallow a tiny camera that takes snapshots inside the body for a physician to evaluate. The miniature camera, along with a light, transmitter, and batteries called capsule cam, is housed in a capsule, the size of a large vitamin pill, and is used in a procedure known as capsule endoscopy, which is non-invasive and painless way of looking into the oesophagus and small intestine. Once swallowed, the capsule is propelled through the small intestine by peristalsis, and acquires and transmits patient abdomen, through a recording device worn on a belt stores the images, to be examined and received. Description:

Internally the capsule is made of 8 parts:
1)Optical dome
2)Lens holder
3)Lens
4)Illuminating led’s
5)CMOS image sensor
6)Battery
7)ASIC transmitter
8)Antenna

Optical Dome:
This shape results in easy orientation of the capsule axis along the central axis ofSmall intestine and so helps propel the capsule forward easily.The Optical Dome contains the Light Receiving Window. Lens Holder:

The Lens Holder is that part of the capsule which accommodates the lens.The lens is tightly fixed to the holder so that it doesn’t get anytime.

Lens:
The Lens is an integral component of the capsule.It is arranged behind the Light Receiving Window. Illuminating LED’s:
Around the Lens & CMOS Image Sensor, four LED’s (Light Emitting Diodes) are present.These plural lighting devices are arranged in donut shape. CMOS Image Sensor:
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Image Sensor is the most important part of the capsule. It is highly sensitive and produces very high quality images.It has 140º field of view and can detect objects as small as possible. Battery:

Battery used in the capsule is button shaped and are two in number as shown. Batteries are arranged together just behind the CMOS Image Sensor. Silver Oxide primary batteries are used (Zinc/Alkaline Electrolyte/Silver Oxide).Such a battery has a even discharge voltage, disposable and doesn’t cause harm to the body ASIC Transmitter:

The ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) Transmitter is arranged behind the Batteries as shown. Two Transmitting Electrodes are connected to the outlines of the ASIC Transmitter. These electrodes are electrically isolated from each other. Antenna:

As shown, the Antennae is arranged at the end of the capsule. It is enclosed in a dome shaped chamber

Platform components
Patients undergoing capsule endoscopy bear an antenna array, worn in standard locations over the abdomen. The recording device to which the leads are attached is capable of recording the thousands of images transmitted by the capsule. A typical capsule endoscopy examination takes approximately 7 hours. Mainly there are 3 platform...
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