Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
A child's intellect progresses through four distinct stages. Each stage brings about new abilities and ways of processing information. Children are born with the innate tendency to interact with their environments. Young children and adults use the same schemes when dealing with objects in the world. Children adapt their responses and assimilate new schemes to handle situations. They will then accommodate their schemes.
Schemes- mental patterns that guide behavior
Adaptation- the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation Assimilation- understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes Accommodation- modifying existing schemes to fit new situations Piaget's Stages of Development
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
Most criticisms are in regards to his research methods.
Although Piaget believed children will automatically advance to the next stage, environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Social interaction plays an important role in the development of cognitive skills. The development of cognitive skills depends upon the zone of proximal development . The stages of development are too complex to be divided into stages. Scaffolding is a key idea derived from Vygotsky's.
Children used private speech to help them solve problems.
Supported cooperative learning.
Private speech- self-talk
Zone of proximal development- the level of development that is right about the level the person's present level. Scaffolding- the assistance provided by more competent peers or adults. Comparison of Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories of Cognitive Development Bibliography
Robert E. Slavin, Chapter 2: Theories of Development. Educational Psychology: Theory into Practice, 8th Ed. Allyn Bacon...