physiotheray Role of supportive management with therapeutic management among causes of COPD Introduction:-
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways narrow over time.  This limits airflow to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea). In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests.  There are two main forms of COPD: Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus, Emphysema, which involves destruction of the lungs over time. COPD occurs mostly in older people having age above 60 years, males have higher incidence than females with a ratio of 5:1.The prevalence rate is that 1 of every 7 people between the ages of 55 and 64 has moderate COPD (14%) , and 1 of every 4 people older than 75 years has moderate COPD(25%). Risk factors for COPD are: Smoking, alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace, Exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution, frequent use of cooking fire without proper ventilation. Patients with COPD usually present with , Chronic cough and sputum production (in chronic bronchitis), Dyspnea, Rhonchi, decreased intensity of breath sounds, and prolonged expiration on physical examination, Airflow limitation on pulmonary function testing that is not fully reversible and most often progressive, tachypnea, a rapid breathing rate, wheezing sounds or crackles in the lungs heard through a stethoscope, breathing out taking a longer time than breathing in, enlargement of the chest, particularly the front-to-back distance (hyper aeration), active...
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