Physiology Study Sheet Ch 1and 2

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Ch 1
Levels of Structural Organization of the Human Body:
1. Atoms- tiny building blocks of matter
2. molecules-lots of atoms
3. organelles-basic components of microscopic cells
4. cells-smallest units of living things
5. tissue-groupings of similar cells with common function (epithelium, connective tissue, nervous tissue and muscle) 6. organs-discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function in the body 7. organ system-organs work together to accomplish a common purpose 8. organism-living being

Functional Characteristics to maintain Life:
1. Maintaining boundaries: internal environment must be separate from the external environment 2. Movement
3. Responsiveness: (or excitability) the ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond to them. 4. Digestion: the breaking down of food to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood 5. Metabolism: all chemical reactions that occur within body cells 6. Excretion: removing waste

7. Reproduction: cellular level for body growth or repair, or reproduction of whole new person 8. Growth: increase in size

11 organ systems of the Body (pg 60)
1. Integumentary:
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Lymphatic
5. Respiratory
6. Digestive
7. Nervous
8. Endocrine
9. Cardiovascular
10. Urinary
11. Reproductive

Survival Needs:
1. Nutrients
2. Oxygen
3. Water
4. Normal body temp.
5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure

Homeostasis: bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continually. (unchanging) a dynamic state of equilibrium or balance, Negative Feedback: the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. (Heater in a house) opposite direction of initial change. Keeps body chemicals or functions within a narrow range. Positive Feedback: result enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated. Response proceeds in the same direction as the initial change. (labor contractions and blood clotting) Homeostatic imbalance: disease is result of a disturbance in homeostasis

Ch 2:
Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass
Energy: is the capacity to do work or put matter into motion Potential Energy: stored energy
Kinetic energy: active or working energy
Major energy forms: energy is easily converted from one form to another but inefficient because some energy is always lost as heat. 1. Chemical Energy: is the form stored in the bonds of chemical substances. When chem reactions occur, potential energy is unleashed and becomes kinetic energy. 2. Electrical Energy: results from the movement of charged particles. (ions move across cell membranes, nerve impulses to transmit messages from one part of the body to another) 3. Mechanical Energy: is energy directly involved in moving matter. (riding a bike- your legs move the pedals) 4. Radiant energy or electromagnetic energy: energy that travels in waves. (visible light, radio waves, x-rays, ultraviolet, infrared waves) Chemical element: unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods. * Carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen make up 96% of body weight Atom: clusters of particles

1. Neutrons (n0) have same mass as proton (1 amu)
2. Protons (p+)
3. Electrons (e-) (0 amu)
Atomic number: equal to the # of protons (and electrons) in its nucleus ( 2He) Atomic mass: sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons
Atomic weight: average of the relative weights (mass #) of all the isotopes of an element, Isotopes: structural variations in elements. They have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in the number of neutrons they contain. Radioisotope: heavier isotopes of many elements are unstable, and their atoms decompose spontaneously into more sable forms. This...
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