PHYSIOLOGY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The male reproductive system and Hypospadias.
HNC Health Care (A)
The male reproductive system and hypospadias.
The main focus of this essay is to explore, if any, the physical effects that hypospadias can have on the male reproductive system. Through investigation of websites and articles, the aim is to raise awareness of the defect whilst also describing the aetiology or symptoms along with any known, long and short term effects. The everyday function of the male reproductive system is to produce, store and transport sperm and semen and to discharge sperm into the female vagina for fertilisation to occur. The male reproductive system is also responsible for producing the male sex hormone, testosterone.
Hypospadias is an abnormality of the urethra and penis which can cause problems with passing urine and erections (patient.co.uk). According to Greek terminology, the meaning of hypospadias is broken down as follows; hypo meaning “under” and spadon meaning “a tear”. (hypospadiasUK.com) Hypospadias is a relatively common condition which, according to the website Hypospadias UK, can affect 1 in 300 male babies. Different manifestations of hypospadias can appear, depending on the moment when, during the embryonic development of the phenotypic masculine sex, the different fusion processes which form the urethra are disrupted (hypospadias-emotions.com (Larsen, 1996)). Interruptions during this development can affect the severity of the condition and in more severe variations, the penis may display a “downward tilt” otherwise known as “chordee”. This congenital defect, meaning the symptoms are displayed at birth, presents in one of the following ways in varying degrees of severity: • subcoronal - urethra opening is located near the head of the penis • midshaft - urethra opening is located along the underside of the...