Physiology Goldfish Lab

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My fish was administered Ketamine and a change of operculum movements was seen when you compare the baseline average of Table 1 to the operculum movements when the drug was introduced in Table 2. This difference marked a behavioral abnormality of the fish and consequently the drug dispensation was stopped. Another abnormality in behavior was the fish having rhythmic breathing and swimming compared to erratic breathing and stationary movement. It appears that the operculum movements increased when the drug took effect. It went from 41 mvmt. /minute to 71 mvmt. / minute as seen in Table 2. This would suggest an increase in metabolic rate. However, the behavior of the fish showed that it had rapid operculum movement to periods of no operculum movement which would represent a decrease in metabolic rate. My fish was the only fish to have an increase in operculum movement when 1st effect was observed. In table 3, it is shown that the class data was all very similar. Each fish experienced a deviation from its normal behavior. Many fish became stationary, some spastic, while others appeared to be dizzy. It shows in this table that Ketamine had a faster effect on the fish and was given in smaller concentrations than Isoflurane. This is also shown in figure 1. The R- value was 0.7772. In figure 2, the percent difference varied among all fish. The fish who inhaled Isoflurane had a slightly higher percent difference than those given Ketamine. This means that there was a higher metabolic rate change. The R-value was calculated to be 0.3857. In table 4, the t- test determined that there was a statistical difference between the concentration means when the first effect of the drug was seen. If the p-value was less than or equal to 0.05 then the mean concentrations are significantly different from each other which is the case for this experiment. Discussion

Ketamine is a drug which produces sleep, acts as a pain relieving agent, and effects short term memory loss. It is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist which inhibits the action of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor. It stimulates a "dissociative anesthesia” state which decreases signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. A person is said to be detached from their surroundings when Ketamine has taken effect on the central nervous system. It is also used as a recreational drug. Ketamine has various effects in humans, which include analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation. A person’s eyes will remain open and constantly move from side to side when under the influence of the drug. (Ketamine, 2011) In the cardiovascular system, Ketamine can cause mild stimulation. The blood pressure rises by about 25% and the heart rate is increased by about 20%. Overall, Ketamine increases the workload of the heart. In the respiratory system, it can often cause the individual to stop breathing for up to a minute. Ketamine produces some bronchodilation making it a useful anesthetic drug for people with asthma. Bronchodilation decreases resistance in the respiratory airway. In the gastrointestinal tract, saliva production is increased. Finally in the skeletal muscle, muscle tone is often enhanced. It is not uncommon for spontaneous movements to occur during anesthesia. (Tomlinson, 1994) The short term effects of Ketamine are an increase in heart rate, slurred speech, confusion, disorientation, out-of-body experience, nausea, sedation, increased energy, euphoria, etc. The long term effects may lead to cognitive impairments such as verbal, short-term memory and visual memory. It is thought that it may impair neuronal morphology and might lead to dysfunctions of neural networks in the cell. It is commonly injected intramuscularly, but can also be taken orally and nasally. (Ketamine, 2011) Isoflurane reduces pain sensitivity and relaxes muscles. It is an inhalation anesthetic...
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