Physiologic Value of Food

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PHYSIOLOGIC VALUE OF FOOD
Organic compounds
* Protein
* Lipids
* Carbohydrates
* Vitamins
Inorganic elements
* Water
* Minerals
Vit & min
* Act as a catalysts which prompt the 3 major nutrients –carbohydrates , protein,fats METABOLISM
* “Metabolismos”-to change or alter
* Chemical process of transforming foods into complex tissue elements and of transforming complex body substance into simpler ones, along with the production of heat energy * Is the totality of the chemical processes in the body in which substance are change in other substance to sustain life. Energy

* I the force of power that enables the body to do its work * Chemical energy locked in foodstuffs by reason of the chemical process. ENERGY FROM FOODS
The CALORIE
Kcal/ kilogram calorie
* Unit of energy
Calorie
* Standard unit in measuring heat
* Unit of measurement for the energy that the body gets from food. * Buy product when carb, pro and fats oxidize from the body * 1kcal-heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 kg of H20 1 degree centigrade. Fuel factor of carb=4 calories/gram

Fat= 9cal/g
Protein=4 cal/g
Bomb calorimeter
* Device used to measure total calorie/energy content available from food. * Measured in kilocalories
* 1000calories=1 kcal
JOULE
* Measure of energy in metric system
* 1cal/kcal= 4.184joule/kilojoules
Fyi: 1 cup of milk
12g carb=48kcal
8 gram protein=32kcal
10 gms fats=90 kcal
Total=170 kcal
COMPONENTS OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE
BASAL METABOLISM
* Measure of the energy needed by the body at rest for all its internal chemical activities. * Aprx. 1 cal/kg of body weight
* Minimum amt of the body needed to
* Respiration
* Cellular metabolism
* Circulation
* Glandular act
* Maintenance ng temp
BMR- rate of basal metabolism in person at
given time and place
condition necessary for BMR test
1. Must be in fasting 12 hrs after meal-test usually in the morning 2. Must be free, awake,tensions that causes heat production 3. Env temp- 20-25c
Saru mo ki karaochiru-even monkeys fall from trees-even an evpert can make mistakes MACRONUTRIENTS
CARBOHYDRATES
* Org comp made of carbon (1)O2 and (2)hydrogen
* Polyhydroxy aldehydes
* Major source of energy
* 80-100% of cal
Classification
1. Monosaccharide
2. Disaccharide
3. Polysaccharide
.A. monosaccharide/simple sugar
* Simplest form
* Absorbed directly in the bloodstream from the small intestine

a. Glucose/dextrose
* Principal form in which carbo is used ng body
* Fruit, sweet corn,corn syrup
* Created in the body by starch digestion
* only one that can provide energy for the brain
* gluconeogenesis
* protein is converted into glucose
b. fructose/levulose
* sweetest
* honey, most fruits and some vegestables
* converted glucose in the body
c. galactose
* produced from lactose/milk sugar by digestion
* and is converted glucose in the body
* galactosemia
* inability to metabolize galactose
.B. Disaccharides/double sugars
* made up of 2 monosaccharides
* must be changed to simple sugar by HYDROLYSIS b4 absorbed

a. sucrose/table sugar
* galactose+fructose
* from cane and beet sugar
* found=fruits, veg, syrups,sweet food production
* upon digestion=glucose, galactose
b. lactose/milk sugar
* milk@milk products except CHEESE
* digestion=glucose,galactose
* less sweet than sucrose
* remains in stomach longer para growth of useful bacteria. * 7% in human milk
* Favors calcium and phosphorus assimilation
c. Maltose
* Not found in free foods
* Produced by hydrolysis of STARCH and converted in GLUCOSE sa digestion * Malt product&germinating cereals. Some infant formulas, beer * Less sweet than 2

.C. Polysaccharide /complex sugar
* Many molecules of simple...
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