1. List the following values from Chart 1:
Hematocrit value for healthy male living at sea level in Boston 48 Hematocrit value for healthy female living at sea level in Boston 44
2. Were the values listed in question 1 within normal range? Yes
3. Describe the difference between the male and the female hematocrit for an individual living in Boston. The secretion of erythropoetin from the kidneys stimulates testosterone in males. Erythropoetin makes red blood cells and therefore, more are found in males than in females.
4. List the following values from Chart 1:
Hematocrit value for healthy male living in Denver 55
Hematocrit value for healthy female living in Denver 53
5. How did these values differ from the values for Boston? The Hemocrit was higher in the Boston female and male than compared to that of the Denver female/male.
6. Describe the effect of living at high elevations on a person’s hematocrit. There is less oxygen living at a higher altitude, so in order to have an efficient amount a person needs more RBC
7. Describe how the kidneys respond to a decrease in oxygen and what effect this has on hematocrit. The decrease of oxygen will cause an increase of red blood cell production; in turn the kidneys will produce erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production.
8. List the following values from Chart 1:
Hematocrit value for male with aplastic anemia 33
% WBC for male with aplastic anemia 1%
9. Were the values listed in question 8 within the normal range? Why or why not? One through four was fairly normal as they’re all healthy. Five, because the person had aplastic anemia, the reading was very low; the lack of bone marrow causes the red blood cell to be very low as well. Six was way below normal because of iron deficiency in this case there could not be enough hemoglobin production.
10. List the following value from Chart 1:
Hematocrit for female with iron-deficiency anemia 32
11. Was the value in question 10 normal or not? Explain. It is not normal as the deficiency in iron causes hemocrit and hemoglobin production to be less.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
The following questions refer to Activity 2: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
12. Describe the effect that sickle cell anemia has on the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate was much lower than what is normal.
13. Why do you think that it has this effect? Hint: Sickle cell anemia alters the shape of red blood cells. The hemoglobin takes on an irregular shape that alters the shape of the red blood cells. They change from round (which is normal), to a shape of a doughnut, to the extended shape of a sickle. Sickle cells are pointed and rigid, not like that of normal red blood cells that move effortlessly through the small blood vessels. Sickle cells are apt to get caught in narrow blood vessels which in turn obstructs the progression of blood. Sickle cells have a shorter life span that eventually causes anemia due to the low RBC count. Norman red blood cells survive for 120 days in flow—sickle cells survive only 10 to 20 days.
14. Record the sedimentation rate for a menstruating female. 17
15. How did this value compare to the healthy individual? Why? The sedimentation rate was elevated which is a sign of that this person was experiencing anemia.
16. What was the sedimentation rate for the iron-deficient individual? 40
17. What effect does iron deficiency have on ESR? It signals a higher rate of sedimentation.
18. Record the following values from Chart 2:
ESR for person suffering from a myocardial infarction 40
ESR for person suffering from angina pectoris 5
19. Compare the values in question 18 and explain how they might be used to monitor heart conditions. ESR that is elevated can be a sign of myocardial infarction, whereas normal is a sign of angina pectoris.
20. List some other conditions that ESR is used to monitor. Certain...