Physioex 8.0 Exercise 10

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Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis
Activity 1: Normal Breathing

1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7.4
2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7.4
3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7.4
4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during normal breathing? If so, how? No, it stayed at 7.4 5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? Yes 6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of normal breathing? If so, how? No, it stayed at 40mm Hg

Activity 2a: Hyperventilation – Run 1

1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7.43
2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7.52
3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7.67
4. Maximum pH = 7.68
5. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run? If so, how? Yes pH levels in the blood did change, they increased over the course of the run 6. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? No the pH levels were not in the “normal” range for the human body. Beginning at 40 seconds, with the pH at 7.52, respiratory alkalosis occurred. 7. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of this run? If so, how? Yes the PCO2 levels did fluctuate over the course of this run decreased from 40mm Hg to 19.7mm Hg 8. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect to renal system to compensate for this condition? Renal compensation for alkalosis means the kidneys will correct the basic conditions by increasing H+ absorption and by increasing bicarbonate (HCO3-) secretion. 9. How did the hyperventilation trace differ from the trace for the normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? The amount of air inspired and expired (tidal volume) increased from the normal value of around 500ml to around 3 Liters 10. What might cause a person to hyperventilate? Anxiety, stress, or panic attacks, caused by over breathing

Activity 2b: Hyperventilation – Run 2

1. What happened to the trace after the 20-second mark when you stopped the hyperventilation? Did the breathing return to normal immediately? Explain your observation. At 20 seceonds, after hyperventilation, breathing stopped for approximately 10 seconds before resuming at normal rates. Breathing stops because of the low partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

Activity 3: Rebreathing

1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7.34
2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7.32
3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7.26
4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run? If so, how? Yes it decreased from 7.4. At 20 seconds it was 7.34 and by 60 seconds the pH was 7.26 5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? It went below the normal range (below 7.35), becoming more acidic. Beginning at 20 seconds, with the pH at 7.32 respiratory acidosis occurred. 6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of this run? If so, how? It increased from 40 mmHg to 53.9 mmHg. 7. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect the renal system to compensate for this condition? By having renal compensation for acidosis the kidneys will correct the acidic conditions by increasing H+ secretion and by increasing bicarbonate absorption. Also the kidneys can secrete carbon dioxide. 8. How did the rebreathing trace differ from the trace for normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? The amount of air inspired and expired increased to about 1.3L which is an increased depth of breathing 9. Give examples of respiratory problems that would result in pH and PCO2 patterns similar to what you observed during rebreathing? Breathing into a paper bag would cause a rise in hypercapnia and an acidic pH. This also happens in diseases that cause shallow breathing or inadequate gas exchange like pneumonia, emphysema, congestive heart...
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