Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
1.Identify the organs forming the respiratory passageway(s) in descending order until the alveoli are reached. 2.Describe the location, structure, and function of each of the following: nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. 3.List and describe several protective mechanisms of the respiratory system. 4.Distinguish between conducting and respiratory zone structures. 5. Describe the makeup of the respiratory membrane, and relate structure to function. 6.Describe the gross structure of the lungs and pleurae.
Mechanics of Breathing
7.Explain the functional importance of the partial vacuum that exists in the intrapleural space. 8.Relate Boyle’s law to the events of inspiration and expiration. 9.Explain the relative roles of the respiratory muscles and lung elasticity in producing the volume changes that cause air to flow into and out of the lungs. 10.List several physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation. 11.Explain and compare the various lung volumes and capacities. 12.Define dead space.
13.Indicate types of information that can be gained from pulmonary function tests.
Gas Exchanges Between the Blood, Lungs, and Tissues
14.State Dalton’s law of partial pressures and Henry’s law. 15.Describe how atmospheric and alveolar air differ in composition, and explain these differences. 16.Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s laws to events of external and internal respiration.
Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood
17.Describe how oxygen is transported in the blood, and explain how oxygen loading and unloading is affected by temperature, pH, BPG, and Pco2. 18.Describe carbon dioxide transport in the blood.
Control of Respiration
19.Describe the neural controls of respiration.
20.Compare and contrast the influences of arterial pH, arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, lung reflexes, volition, and emotions on respiratory rate and depth.
21.Compare and contrast the hyperpnea of exercise with hyperventilation. 22.Describe the process and effects of acclimatization to high altitude.
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
23.Compare the causes and consequences of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, tuberculosis, and lung cancer.
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
24.Trace the embryonic development of the respiratory system. 25.Describe normal changes that occur in the respiratory system from infancy to old age.
I.Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System (pp. 805–819; Figs. 22.1–22.11; Table 22.1) A.The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses (pp. 806–809; Figs. 22.1–22.3) 1.The nose provides an airway for respiration; moistens, warms, filters, and cleans incoming air; provides a resonance chamber for speech; and houses olfactory receptors. 2.The nose is divided into the external nose, which is formed by hyaline cartilage and bones of the skull, and the nasal cavity, which is entirely within the skull. 3.The nasal cavity consists of two types of epithelium: olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa. 4.The nasal cavity is surrounded by paranasal sinuses within the frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones that serve to lighten the skull, warm and moisten air, and produce mucus. B.The Pharynx (p. 809; Fig. 22.3)
1.The pharynx connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. a.The nasopharynx serves as only an air passageway, and contains the pharyngeal tonsil, which traps and destroys airborne pathogens. b.The oropharynx is an air and food passageway that extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis. c.The laryngopharynx is an air and food passageway that lies directly...