The type of physics that I will be presenting is a branch of Fluid Mechanics. Fluid mechanics studies the physics of gases and liquids.

Hydraulics is defined as:

"a branch of science that deals with practical applications of liquid in motion."

Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, via www.dictionary.com

The science started over thousands of years ago with Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and Archimedes (287-212 B.C.).

Many European scientists also contributed to hydraulics, including da Vinci, Mariotte and Boyle.

The scientist who discovered the main principle I will be talking about is Pascal.

A French scientist who studied math and physics. His work included studying atmospheric pressure, conic sections and the principles of hydrostatics.

After Pascal there is Bernoilli, Franklin and Froud, who all also contributed to the science of hydraulics.

How it works (the physics part)

The basic rule of using hydraulic power is Pascal's Principle.

Pascal's Principle:
pressure exerted on a fluid is distributed equally throughout the fluid.

Hydraulics uses incompresible liquids so the applied pressure from one end (small arrow) is equal to the desired pressure on the other end (big arrow).

The big arrow is pointing toward a piston that is free to move, and is sometimes connected to a rod. When the force is applied, the piston moves up or down.

The equations are:
equations

Of course, as Prof. Newman says, "there is no free lunch," In order to move the larger area, the smaller area has to move a lot in order to move the larger area a little.

The larger area is nine times greater than the smaller area. In order to move the larger piston one inch, the smaller piston has to move nine inches.

The Uses of Hydraulics

Hydraulics are used in many ways. Most of them are used everyday and not even thought about. Here are some examples of how hydraulics are used. They are all machines (I'm a mechanical...

...
Free Fall
Rachel Shea
Physics 131 Lab, QL
Hasbrouck 210
Sept. 21, 2014
Abstract
This experiment measures the study of motion by observing the force of gravity acting solely upon an object, and also measures reaction time. If an object is in free fall, the only force acting upon it is gravity. The object used in this experiment was a golf ball that provided some acceleration when dropped. A sensor positioned underneath a table recorded the golf ball’s pattern of motion, when dropped. The main objective of performing this experiment is to measure the velocity and position of the ball to eventually find the acceleration of free fall. A computer program called, DataStudio, was used to create a graph of position vs. time and a graph of velocity vs. time. The second part of the experiment involved randomly dropping a ruler and having your partner catch it to determine reaction time.
Questions
1. The parabolic curves open upward instead of downward because of the golf balls movement over time: where it is dropped from, to where it ends up. The ball begins close to the sensor, then drops to the ground, then bounces back up closer to sensor again, therefore the bounces correspond with the bottom curves of the parabola. If the data were collected from the floor then the curve would open downward. But because the sensor graphs the position from the sensor, the curve was upwards.
2.
-4572009207500
The slope of the velocity versus time graph physically...

...accident such as car crash, since the momentum changes instantly, the force becomes extremely great. Impulsive force is produced during the collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be transformed to another form of energy, it is always conserved during any collision. The change in momentum is then a fixed quantity, and to lower the force, changes have to be made in the time of the collision.5 The time required for the car to stop in a collision have to be increased so that the forces that will impact the occupant will be lower, and they will be less likely to be hurt. If the time taken for the change...

...
Task 1
Q1) Explain the various principles involved with hydraulic fluids (P1)
There are 4 types
PASCAL’S LAW
DIFFRENTIAL AREAS
BRAMAH’S PRESS
BERNOULL’S PRINCIPLE
Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law defines the fundamental principle of power transmission by hydraulic system. The Pascal’s Law is the main principle behind all hydraulic systems. It is stated pressure is an enclosed container is transmitted equally and undiminished to all parts of the container and acts at right angles to enclosed walls. The size, shape and volume is irrelevant. There are two main equation in equations in hydraulic system these are applied in order to calculate the parameters.
(1) Force (N) = [(Area) (m2)] X [(Pressure) (Pa)]
Using the above equation any of the variables can be found
As per this equation lesser the area more the force the force applied
An important relationship in hydraulics is the area of a piston, the distance it moves and the volume of fluid displaced.
In hydraulics mechanical devices are used called actuators, these
Actuators consist of an encased movable piston.
(2) Volume = Area X Distance
Using this equation the volume required to move the piston with an area by a
Certain distance can be determined or any other variable in mind.
DIFFERENTIAL AREAS
Differential areas this is caused by the area of the piston being reduced on one side by an...

...AP Physics Summer Assignment with
Dr. Crymes
Welcome to AP Physics B! It is a college level
physics course that is fun, interesting, and challenging
on a level you’ve not yet experienced. This assignment
will review all of the prerequisite knowledge expected of
you. There are 7 parts to this assignment. By taking the
time to review and understand all parts of this
assignment, you will help yourself acclimate to the rigor
and pacing of APPhysics. The summer assignment will
be “due” the first day of class. Good luck!
1. First off: send me your email address to jonathan_crymes@gwinnett.k12.ga.us so that I can make a class
list and hopefully send you some cool stuff over the summer. No extra work, I promise. Preferably
today, but no later than June 30, email me to introduce yourself. Please include the following
information with your email:
- First name, last name, last math class taken and grade received.
- What do you hope to get out of this course besides a good grade?
- Do you have any physics questions you’ve always wondered about like: what is a black hole? Is time
travel really possible? What is “relativity”? or “quantum physics”? or “if the Universe is filled with
stars, why is it dark in space but not on Earth?” or the classic “Did Einstein really fail his math class?”
2. Okay, remember how in chemistry they use symbols like “O” for oxygen and “H” for hydrogen and...

...for 1s from 1.6m to 0.2m
it remained at rest for 2s at 0.2m
it moved in the positive direction with a constant speed for 3s’
DISCUSSIONS
I found out that the main of this experiment which is from the experiment I can say that the slope of the distance vs time graph is the velocity of the object the experiment graphs show certain properties which tells whether the object is moving in the negative direction or whether it is moving in the positive direction , if the object is at rest or if it is in motion. If the slope of the graph is increasing it means the object is moving away for the motion detector and if it is decreasing the person is moving towards the motion detector and if the slope is 0 the person is at rest
REFERENCE
Physic for engineers and scientist-serway and jewatt
...

...HYDRAULIC BICYCLE
Tamil selvan.s
Mechanical Department, MeenakshiSundararajan Engineering College No:363, Arcot Road, Kodambakkam, Chennai-24
tamilw1993@gmail.com
Abstract: A two-wheeled vehicle such as a bicycle is most efficient and eco friendly. Now a days the bicycles are not used because of advanced vehicles. So this paper based on using hydraulic circuit in bicycle. By making this maximum power can get through this process. We can save also the fuels which is available in the earth. It gives the engineers an idea of how the overall system will behave in different configurations.
Introduction: The design project, time restraints forced the Chainless Challenge team to design and build their competition bicycles without acquiring a good understanding of the dynamic nature of the system. It usually includes the quality, cost, and performance of the existing technologies. It is desired that a human powered vehicle be designed that does not utilize a direct chain and sprocket system. Replacing this power train with a hydraulic one presents various problems.
These include reduced efficiency, pedal and pump rotational speed discrepancies, and increased overall weight. In order to offset the drawbacks of efficiency loss, the team added value to the design by creatively using hydraulic components in various configurations.
Requirement For...

...HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS FOR OFF-HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT
David E. Keyser Applications Coordinator
Keith Hogan OEM Sales
MICO, Inc. 1911 Lee Boulevard North Mankato, MN U.S.A. 56003-2507 Fax: +1 507 625 3212 Tel: +1 507 625 6426
ABSTRACT This paper will identify some prerequisites for brake actuation circuit design, describe three basic types of brake actuation circuitry, and will point out some common problems to be avoided in brake actuation circuit design for off-highway vehicles and equipment. It will deal only with the actuation of service brakes (as opposed to parking brake). Service brake selection, pneumatic, and vacuum powered brake systems are beyond the scope of this paper. PREREQUISITES Although we are assuming fully functional and operational brakes, this paper outlines six key prerequisites that need to be known in order to design the brake actuation circuit. These are: (1) stopping parameters, (2) required brake torque, (3) capacity of the service brakes, (4) brake line pressure, (5) volumetric requirements, and (6) required operator input effort. Because there are many brake actuation circuits possible for a given application, this information must be understood in order for the designer to choose the optimal circuit. In selecting the components for a brake actuation circuit the designer needs to start at the foundation (service) brakes and "work backward" to the method of actuation. By working backward the...