ARCELIA ARRATIA
MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH, MASS, VOLUME, AND DENSITY
PHYSICS
LAB REPORT

Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other. Physics utilizes the scientific formula to test hypothesis and calculate matter such as density. Tools were created to measure material in a laboratory and have been perfected to reduce error. In this experiment measurement of length, mass, volume and density will be obtained through instruments of measuring and calculations. The objects being measured will be two cylinders, one brass the other iron and a glass ball. There will be two sets of table requiring data obtained from the objects including height, diameter, volume, mass and density. Objective

In this laboratory experiment, the following objectives will be achieved: (i) Determination of diameters and lengths of the two metal cylinders and the copper wire (ii) Determination of mass of same

(iii) Computation of densities of the cylinders and comparison with the acceptable values.

Materials used

Equiptment

1. Triple- beam balance2. Vernier Caliper
3. Micrometer4. Electronic balance (to measure mass of copper wire)
5. A ruler (inches and centimeters)6. Graduated Cylinder
7. A roll of copper wire.8.Wire Cutter
9. Irregular object (lead, zinc, etc)
10. Three cylindrically shaped metals (brass, iron, aluminum, steel, tin, zinc, etc) Functions of the equiptment
In order to obtain precise measurements, complex equipments should be used .Take precaution in multiple trials to decrease errors. One of the instruments that will be used is the vernier caliper, a vernier helps in reading millimeter of the fractional part of the scale. This is designed to take external linear dimensions, by contact between two opposing sides. With less accuracy, it also measure internal dimensions, depths, bumps, among other. The next instrument being used is the micrometer caliper is...

...Ghebrekiden, Lucille Emeruem,
Shakira Thomas, Chris Thomas and Brad Steward
9/18/2014
Physics I Lab
Dr. Abdalla
Measurement of Length, Mass Volume and Density
Introduction:
All science is concerned with measurement. "MEASUREMENT" is the determination of the size or magnitude of something "Or" The comparison of unknown quantity with some standard quantity of the same rates is known asmeasurement. Due to this fact we have standards of measurement. Since the precision of all measuring instruments is limited, the number of digits that can be assumed as known for any measurement is also limited. When making a measurement, read the instrument to its smallest scale division. Accuracy of a result or experimental procedure can refer to the percentage difference between the experimental result and the accepted value. The stated uncertainty in an experimental result should always be greater than this percentage accuracy. In this experiment we will measure length, Mass, Volume and Density using different tools.
Equipment’s:
1) Vernier caliper
2) Triple beam balance
3) Steel cube
4) Cylinder including (Aluminum, brass, copper)
Theory:
The goal of the first part of this experiment is to determine the densities of a number of cylinders, and gain an understanding of how different measurement techniques can affect...

...during measurements. For an experiment to be successful, especially those that involve measurements, the number of significant figures must be known. Significant figures are the digits required to express a measured quantity and thus reflect the accuracy of the measurement.
Uncertainty is defined as the smallest increment that can be measured and is defined by the instrument used.
An error is defined as any deviation from the standard value. Errors could either be systematic or random. Systematic errors are caused by measurements that are not properly calibrated while random errors are caused by chance.
Methodology
Figure 1: Experimental set-up using vernier caliper
Figure 2: Micrometer caliper
In the experiment, three measuring devices are used to obtain the measurement of a sphere with known composition: vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and a foot rule.
Ten individual measurements are then made for each of the device. After the measurements are obtained, the mean diameter of the sphere was calculated using the formula:
Mean Diameter = Σdiameter
n
Using this data, the deviation of each measurement was calculated,
d = /reading – mean diameter/
as well as its average deviation
(a.d.) = Σd
n
The volume and the density of the sphere were then calculated using the appropriate formula.
Volume (V) =...

...Measurements Lab Report
Measurements
Cassandra M. Murphy
Grand Canyon University: Physics 1 Lab
September 5, 2013
Testable Question: Circular objects; what happens to the circumference as the diameter changes?
Hypothesis: As the diameter increases, the circumference will increase in a proportional linear way. This is because as the diameter increase, the object will as well.
Variables: Independent- The diameter of the circular objects.
Dependent- The circumference of the circular objects.
Design Table:
index | D(cm) | C(cm) |
1-11 | D1-11 | C1-11 |
Materials:
-Vernier Caliper
-Variety of circular objects
-String
-Ruler
Procedure:
1). Obtain 10 different circular objects, your ruler, string, and Vernier Caliper.
2). Make a table to record all of your data. Start measuring the diameter and circumferences of all your circular objects.
3). Put all of your supplies away and start calculating your percent error.
Data Table:
index | D(cm) | C(cm) |
1 | 1.24cm | 4.1cm |
2 | 1.93cm | 8.1cm |
3 | 3.29cm | 10.8cm |
4 | 4.74cm | 17.3cm |
5 | 6.76cm | 21.4cm |
6 | 17.5cm | 55.7cm |
7 | 1.27cm | 3.7cm |
8 | 3.2cm | 10.6cm |
9 | 3.2cm | 10.6cm |
10 | 1.11cm | 3.6cm |
11 | 1.19cm | 5.8cm |
Conclusion: In conclusion, my hypothesis was correct. As the diameter of the circular object got...

...1
Physics and Measurement
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time Matter and Model-Building Density and Atomic Mass Dimensional Analysis Conversion of Units Estimates and Order-ofMagnitude Calculations Significant Figures
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
Q1.1 Q1.2 Atomic clocks are based on electromagnetic waves which atoms emit. Also, pulsars are highly regular astronomical clocks. Density varies with temperature and pressure. It would be necessary to measure both mass and volume very accurately in order to use the density of water as a standard. People have different size hands. Defining the unit precisely would be cumbersome. (a) 0.3 millimeters (b) 50 microseconds (c) 7.2 kilograms (b) and (d). You cannot add or subtract quantities of different dimension. A dimensionally correct equation need not be true. Example: 1 chimpanzee = 2 chimpanzee is dimensionally correct. If an equation is not dimensionally correct, it cannot be correct.
Q1.3 Q1.4 Q1.5 Q1.6
Q1.7
If I were a runner, I might walk or run 10 1 miles per day. Since I am a college professor, I walk about 10 0 miles per day. I drive about 40 miles per day on workdays and up to 200 miles per day on vacation. On February 7, 2001, I am 55 years and 39 days old. 55 yr
Q1.8
F 365.25 d I + 39 d = 20 128 dFG 86 400 s IJ = 1.74 × 10 GH 1 yr JK H 1d K
9
s ~ 10 9 s .
Many college students are just approaching 1 Gs. Q1.9...

...Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements
Laboratory Report
Department of Math and Physics
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Abstract
With the use of the ruler, vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and electronic gram scale, the group was able to acquire different sets of measurements by measuring the sphere of unknown composition. The group then was able to compute its mean diameter, average deviation, average deviation of the mean, volume, mass and % percent error for density in SI unit. Then, the members of the group measured the thumb of each other using the ruler and recorded the data in inches.
1. Introduction
During the ancient times, there were many types of measurements used but it was highly unreliable. It was during the late 1700s to 1800s when the SI unit was found and it became the standard of measurement.
The experiment was designed for studying and analyzing errors and how they occur in an experiment, computing the average deviation, mean and the set of average deviation of the mean, familiarizing and comparing the values produced by the vernier caliper, micrometer and the foot rule, and determining the density of an object given its mass and its volume.
2. Theory
In order to prove that no matter how precise your measurements are, there will always be an error. Also, in this experiment, it also aims to prove that the use...

... Ernie Orellana
Physics 11
Lab 1: Measurements of Length, Mass, and Time Applied To the Investigation of a Pendulum
3) Compare your mass measurements with the electronic balance and the beam balance in terms of accuracy and precision.
The mass measurements (in grams) of sphere 1 are 23.7 grams on the balance beam and 23.1 grams on the electronic balance. We can at least confirm that sphere 1 is about 23.0 grams. In terms of sphere 2 the mass measurements of the beam are 68.6 grams and 68.0 grams on the electronic balance. Akin to the idea that we had with sphere 1, we can assume that sphere 2 is about 68.0 grams.
4) Discuss what factors influence the period of oscillation of a pendulum. Which factor has the strongest effect? Which has the weakest?
Factors that had influenced oscillation were the length of the string in meters, the angle that the sphere was released on, and the mass of the sphere. The factors with the greatest influence on the oscillation was the length of the string based on the data we recorded. The data showed an increase in the average time period of oscillation as the length of the string increased. The factors that had the least influence were the mass of the sphere and the angle at which it was released since the average periods were extremely similar.
5) Use your results to predict what...

...Order of Magnitude
* 100.5 = 3.16 (rounding value)
* e.g. 4,200,000=4.2*106
* since 4.2 > 3.16 the magnitude is 107 (6 is rounded up)
The SI System of Fundamental and Derived Units
* Fundamental SI Units:
Quantity | SI Unit | SI Symbol |
length | meter | m |
mass | kilogram | kg |
time | second | s |
electric current | ampere | A |
thermodynamic temperature | Kelvin | K |
amount of substance | mole | m |
luminous intensity | candela | cd |
* Derived SI Units
Quantity | SI Unit | SI Symbol | Fundamental SI Units involved |
frequency | hertz | Hz | s-1 |
force | Newton | N | kg*m*s-2 |
work/energy | joule | J | kg*m2*s-2 |
power | watt | W | kg*m2*s-3 |
pressure | Pascal | Pa | kg*m-1*s-2 |
charge | coulomb | C | A*s |
potential difference | volt | V | kg*m2*s-3*A-1 |
resistance | ohm | Ω | kg*m2*s-3*A-2 |
Systematic and Random Errors
* Systematic error
* Affects each measurement the same way
* Error by system
* E.g. lack of calibration (zero error)
* E.g. Wrong theory or equation
* Not accurate
* Random error
* Different for each measurement
* By human error or environmental influence
* E.g. temperature variation
* E.g. Not enough data collected
* Not precise
* Accuracy – how close the results are from the true value
* Indicated by relative or percentage error
*...

...accident such as car crash, since the momentum changes instantly, the force becomes extremely great. Impulsive force is produced during the collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be transformed to another form of energy, it is always conserved during any collision. The change in momentum is then a fixed quantity, and to lower the force, changes have to be made in the time of the collision.5 The time required for the car to stop in a collision have to be increased so that the forces that will impact the occupant will be lower, and they will be less likely to be hurt. If the time taken for the change...

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