What keeps the stopper moving in a circle?
Purpose: Relate the variables involved in uniform circular motion

Hypothesis: I predict that the velocity of the stopper will increase as the radius is shortened.

Rubber stopper with a hole
PVC tube or wooden spool

1. Measure the mass f the stopper and washer, m, and record it in the data and observations section. Then, prepare the experimental apparatus as shown in figure A. 2. Throughout this experiment, you will need to maintain a constant radius of uniform circular motion while ensuring that all of the centripetal force is provided by the clamp and measured on the spring scale. Practice whirling the stopper in a horizontal plane until you can keep the paper clip a short distance just below the bottom of the tube. If the paper clip touches the bottom of the tube, then the clamp is no longer supplying the centripetal force. If the paper clips rises or falls appreciably as the stopper whirls then the radius of the circle is changing.

B. Constant Radius and Variable Speed

3. With the paper clip against the tube and the string pulled taut, measure the length of the string from the top of the tube to the stopper. Record this as the radius, r, for all three data runs in 4. Whirl the stopper while maintaining a constant force reading on the scale. Once you obtain a constant force, start the stop watch and continue the whirling while monitoring the force. Stop the stopwatch after 30 rev.

5. Record your force and time in data table 1, data run 1.
6. Increase the rate of whirling while maintaining the clip just below the bottom of the tube, and observe what happens to the tension measured by the spring scale. It should increase. Repeat step 4 t this higher spring force.

7. Record your force and time in data table 1, data run 1.
8. Repeat step 6 and record the data in table 1, data run 2.

C. Contact force and Variable Radius

9. Change the position of the paper clip to decrease the radius uniform...

...
“The Domino Effect”
Teacher’s Prompt
Investigate the domino effect with a set of dominoes.
Aim
To investigate the relationship between the mass of the dominoes, and how it impacts the time taken of the domino effect.
Independent Variable: The mass of each domino (12.38 g, 32.38 g, 42.38 g, 62.38 g, 82.38 g).
Dependent Variable: Time taken of the domino effect.
Controlled Variable: The number of dominoes used (8 dominoes), the distance between the dominoes (2 cm), the loads used as the initial force applied on the domino (50g), the inclined plane used as a platform that will direct the load to hit the first domino (20o), the stopwatch used to time the domino effect, the person using the stopwatch, the person releasing the metal weight from the top of the inclined plane, the ruler used to measure the distance between the dominoes.
Equipment
1 Inclined Plane
1 (50 g) Metal Weight
4 x 8 (20 g) Metal Weight
8 Dominoes (Uno Stackos)
1 Digital Mass Balance (± 0.01 g)
1 Masking Tape
1 Protractor
1 Ruler
1 Stopwatch (± 0.01 s)
-34290039687500Diagram
Analysis of Variables
Independent Variable:
The mass of the dominoes will vary ranging from 12.38 g to 82.38 g. The increase between each of the variable will be constantly 20 g, to satisfy the range of the mass; the original mass of the domino is 12.38 g, and an additional mass from a 20 g of load will be attached on top of the domino for every change in variable.
Dependent Variable:
In accordance to...

...
PhysicsLabReport
How does the length of a string holding a pendulum affect its oscillation?
Method
1. You will need the following apparatus: a pendulum, a piece of string, a clamp, a clamp stand and a timer.
2. Measure out 20cm and attach the metal ball.
3. Establish an angle and let the ball swing for 10 oscillations, timing it and stopping at the 10th one.
4. Write down your results.
5. Repeat steps 2-4 another 2 times so that your results are reliable.
6. Then change the length of the string 4 times, so that you get 5 different sets of results and for each time, repeat it 3 times.
DCP
Raw Data
Data Processing
Calculations:
To find the average of the time, I added all 3 values and then divided by three. For example:
(0.89+0.83+0.89)/3 = 0.87
I calculated the absolute uncertainty by considering the furthest point from the mean. For example:
1.31 (mean) – 1.25 (furthest point from the mean) = 0.06
Therefore my absolute uncertainty is +/- 0.06
I calculated the percentage uncertainty by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the mean and multiplying it by 100, like this:
(0.03/1.70) x100 = 0.18%
Source of uncertainties:
The uncertainties in the measurement came primarily from the equipment. Since we used a ruler that was divided into parts of 0.1cm, the readings were normally rounded up or down. The length of string was constant in all 3...

...PhysicsLabReport
Experiment M3 Centripetal Force
School: La Salle College
Class: 6G
Group members (Group 7): Carson Ho, Tang Yui Hong, John Yu, Justin Kwong
Date: 1 / 10 / 2014
Report is written by: Tang Yui Hong 6G (27)
Title
Centripetal Force
Objective
To verify the equation for centripetal force
Apparatus
Instrument
Descriptions
1 rubber bung
circular, cylinder
screw nuts and wire hook
/
1 small paper marker
/
1 rule
1 metre
safety goggles
/
adhesive tape
/
1 glass tube
~ 15 cm
1 nylon string
1.5 m, inextensible
1 stop-watch
/
1 triple beam balance
/
scissors
/
Sketching of the set-up
Theory
Centripetal force F is the net force causing the centripetal acceleration of an object performing uniform circular motion. Its magnitude is given by the equation: F = mrω2
When an object is whirled in horizontal circular motion in mid-air with a piece of string (as shown in figure 1 above), the centripetal force on the object is provided by the horizontal component of tension in the string:
2
=>2 (since r = L)
Procedure
1 A triple beam balance is used to find the mass of the rubber bung, the screw nuts and the wire hook respectively. The total weight of the screw nuts and the wire hook provided the tension T in the nylon thread.
2 The centripetal force apparatus is set up (Figure 2). The paper marker is used to set the length L of the nylon string between the rubber...

...trials were performed or if the class data were to be compared and averaged. Performing the experiments under a vacuum and frictionless setting would remove external variables that affect the data leading to more precise numbers. More accurate percent discrepancies illustrating laws of conservation can be achieved by adding more trials and including more sophisticated measuring tools. These techniques would lead to more accurate results to reduce any experimental errors and to better validate the concepts of energy and momentum conservation.
Conclusion
The purpose of the experiment was to investigate simple elastic and inelastic collisions to study the conservation of momentum and energy concepts. The objective of the lab was met since the validity of the Law of Conservation of Momentum was confirmed by determining the relationship of energy and momentum conservation between inelastic and elastic collisions by utilizing percent discrepancy calculations. The calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 8.75% and 19.23 % for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 22.07% and 9.78 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the elastic collisions were close to the 10%-15% range which validates the concept of momentum conservation in inelastic elastic collisions. In regards to conservation of energy,...

...
Experiment 7: Relative Density
Laboratory Report
Marella Dela Cruz, Janrho Dellosa, Arran Enriquez,
Alyssa Estrella, Zacharie Fuentes
Department of Math and Physics
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philippines
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to show the different methods on how to determine an object’s composition through its density and to determine an object’s density by displacement method and the Archimedes Principle. Results show that. The materials used were the spring scale, beaker, 25 pieces of new 25 centavo coins, a bone from a pig’s leg, diet and regular soft drinks, and a pycnometer.
1. Introduction
Density is a physical property of matter. It is the mass per unit volume of a substance. In this experiment, relative density is also used to be able to determine the composition of the substances or objects used. Relative density is the ratio of a density of a substance to that of the density of a given reference material. It is also known as specific gravity. Density is used when making or building objects that are required to float such as ships on water and airplanes in the sky.
Objectives:
1. To determine the density of an object by displacement method
2. To determine the composition of a substance based on its density
3. To determine the density of a substance by Archimedes Principle
2. Theory
Relative Density (R.D.) or also known as Specific gravity (S.G.), is the raito of...

...investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLABREPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car will be...

...Miriam Karunakaran
Physics Honors
Period 6
Physics Kinematics LabReport
Kinematics is the study of the motion of bodies without reference to mass or force. This lab aided students in observing kinematics by giving them a visual graph to look at from experiments previously performed. Variables used in this lab were “x” for position of the object, “v” for velocity of the object, and “a” for acceleration of the object. Understanding the graphical representation of motion was important in helping students understand how position, velocity, and acceleration are affected with a moving object over a certain period of time. Using a motion detector and an Xplorer GLX, a calculator that graphed our distance velocity, and acceleration, students were able to create graphs for the information. The purpose of this lab was to allow students to visualize a graphical representation of the physics of kinematics being preformed.
For this lab students used the following materials: silver pasco dynamics track, mechanics box- with pulley, black variable speed cart, Xplorer GLX (captures, analyzes, annotates, and stores data quickly and seamlessly, without being connected to a desktop computer), 50g mass, string, meter stick, colored tape, and scissors. With the above materials students were able to run the...

...Lab II, Problem 3:
Projectile Motion and Velocity
Oct. 06, 2013
Physics 1301W, Professor: Hanany, TA: Vladimir
Abstract
A ball is tossed obliquely. The vectors of position and velocity are measured.
The acceleration is calculated.
Introduction
A toy company is now making an instructional videotape on how to predict the position. Therefore, in order to make the prediction accurate, how the horizontal and vertical components of a ball’s position as it flies through the air should be understood. This experiment is to calculate functions to represent the horizontal and vertical positions of a ball. It does so by measuring and calculating the components of the position and velocity of the ball during the toss. Therefore, we can also calculate the acceleration during the procedure.
Prediction
The x-axis is located on the ground level horizontally, pointing to where the ball is initially thrown, that is opposite the direction the ball flies. The vertical y-axis passes through the highest point of the ball during the fly and point upward.
Since the ball experiences no other force, except for gravity, during the toss. There is no horizontal force. It is predicted that the ball should have a constant horizontal speed, which is the horizontal component of initial velocity. Vertically, it has gravity pulling it down all the time. So it should have an acceleration of –g (minus is for the direction). Since it has a vertical...

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