1.What are the spring constant (k) is for spring 1 and spring 2? What are the units of k? Which spring is stiffer? Fs= kx
k is the spring constant and it is measured in N/m or in kg•m/s2 Spring constant for Spring 1= .49=k(.01)= 49 k=49 N/m
Spring constant for spring 2= .49=k(.02)= 24.5 k=24.5 N/m Spring 1 is stiffer; you can see that by the smaller change in spring length, and the higher spring constant.

2.Does your data fall neatly on your best-fit line? What are the possible sources of error in your measurements? Our data falls fairly neatly on our best-fit line. The possible sources of error are incorrect positioning of the ruler, and possible incorrect reading of the measurements.

3.When we draw a line past the data points measured, we call that extrapolation. Why is this not advised in this case? Extrapolation is not advised in this case because extrapolating gets less precise measurements. Since the measurements here might not be 100% accurate in the first place, assumed measurements would not add to the data. There will be more uncertainty between the extrapolated points.

4.Why are the cables of a suspension bridge elastic? The cables are elastic so they act like springs and “bounce” back. This way there isn’t too much strain on the cables as heavy vehicles pass over it. If the cables are too stiff, then the brittleness will cause it to snap. The elastic allows for proper function.

5.Hooke’s Law is a direct relationship. What does this mean? This means that Hooke’s law is a direct relationship between an applied force and the change in the spring’s length due to that applied force. The more weight is placed on the spring, the greater the spring will stretch.

...Aim: To determine a value for the spring’s force constant, k.
Introduction:
Hooke’sLaw indicates the relationship between the amount of extension, e, of a spring to the size of the force, F, acing on it.
This relationship may be written as :-
F = ke
F = ke
where k is a constant for which particular spring you are using. It is the force constant of the spring.
* The force applying on the spring, F, is denoted by Newton in SI Units. (N)
* The amount of extension of the spring, e, is denoted by meters in SI Units. (m)
* The force constant of the spring, k, is denoted by Newton over meters in SI Units. (N/m or N m-1)
The variables for this experiment are as identified below:
* Independent Variable: Slotted Masses of 100 g each
* Dependent Variable: The Amount of Extension of the Spring, e
* Controlled Variable: The Elasticity of the Spring-in-Use
Diagram:
* We have set up our equipment as shown in the diagram opposite. In doing so, we made sure that the spring and meter stick hang over the edge of the bench, where the experiment is being carried out. There should be no interaction between the mass & the spring and the meter stick or the edge of the bench. This will enable us to have larger extensions of the spring.
* Counter Balance
Counter Balance
A clamp or a counter balance, such as a heavy book in this case, is preferable to use in order to provide for the balancing of the...

...HOOKE’SLAW EXPERIMENT
Aim: The aim of this experiment is to determine the force constant (k) of the particular spring used.
Introduction
Hooke’sLaw: Hooke’sLaw is a law that shows the relationship between the forces applied to a spring and change in its length (extension). The relation is best explained by the equation:
F= -k Δx
F: Is force applied to the spring this can be either the strain or stress that acts upon the spring.
k: Is the spring constant and details how hard the spring is.
Δx: Is the displacement of the spring. When the spring is compressed or stretched the x value is positive.
W=mg
W: The weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity.
m: Is a fundamental property of the object; a numerical measure of its inertia; a fundamental measure of the amount of matter in the object. (mass)
g: Is the force of gravity, acting on a unit mass (1 kg) by the earth which is taken 9.8 Nkg-1 in this experiment.
Materials
Balance
Metric ruler
Slotted masses and mass hanger
Spring set
Table stand and rod.
Variables:
Independent: weight (force)
Dependent: length of the spring thus the amount of extension
Controlled: the spring used
Procedure:
1- Gather up the materials together.
2- Set up the system shown aside.
3- Measure the initial length of the spring,...

...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car...

...INVESTIGATION OF HOOKE’SLAW –
AIM:
To investigate Hooke’slaw by estimating the spring constant of a spring.
INTRODUCTION:
Hooke’slaw is a law in physics named after Robert Hooke, a British physicist who lived in the 17th century and is said to have been the first to pose the idea of this law.(wikipedia,2010) Hooke’slaw states that the Force with which a spring pushes back is linearly proportional to the distance from its equilibrium (wikepedia,2010) , this can be simplified by saying that the force acting on a spring/material is directly proportional to the extension(which is how long the spring/material has become/stretched since the force was applied) of the string/material (Breithaupt, 2010). This can be expressed as an equation.
F= -ke
Where F represents the Force (in N), e represents the extension (in m) and k is referred to as the spring constant (which is the stiffness of the spring and is unique for each spring) in N/m (Breithaupt, 2010). Many materials obey this law as long as the load applied on the material does not cause the material to exceed its elastic limit causing the material to loose its elasticity and become deformed even after the load applied has been removed. As the material exceeds its elastic limit the string begins to display a behaviour...

...Technology
Ohm’s law & resistors in parallel & in series
Lab 4
Class: PHY 1434-E475
Due date: March, 13 20144
Group Names: Hisham Sageer
Objectives:
Our object is to confirm Ohm’s law by analyzing the dependence of the electrical current as a function of voltage and as a function of resistance. Also, we studied the current flow and voltage in series and parallel. Finally, the lab determined the equivalence resistance of series and parallel combination of resistors and compared the results with theoretical data.
Theoretical Background:
The first thing that needs to be described in this lab is what the electric current I:
I =. The electric current is defined as charge over time and the unit is ampere (A). In a case where we have the voltage, resistance and current we can set the equation for resistance to be; R = where the unit is called Ohm (Ω). “The current through a resistor is directly proportional to the applied voltage V and inversely proportional to the resistance” (College Physics Laboratory Experiments, 43) in our lab experiment we used some machinery to produce and to measure voltage and some current. We were then able to find its resistance. These apparatus are called ammeter which displays the amount of current in circuit, and the voltmeter to read the voltage (potential difference). Reminding that this diagram is...

...Experiment 1: Simple Harmonic Motion
Dominic Stone
Lab Partner: Andrew Lugliani
January 9, 2012
Physics 132 Lab
Section 13
Theory
For this experiment we investigated and learned about simple harmonic motion. To do this we hung and measured different masses on a spring-mass system to calculate the force constant k.
Simple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion. It is best described as an oscillation motion that causes an object to move back-and-forth in response to a restoring force given by Hooke’sLaw:
1) F=-kx
Where k is the force constant. Then using two different procedures, we calculate the value of the force constant k of a spring in our oscillating system.
We observed the period of oscillation and use this formula:
2) T=2(m/k)
Then we reduced the equation to solve for the value of k by:
3) k=4^2/slope
“Slope” represents the slope of the graph in procedure B. k is then the measure of the stiffness of the spring. We can then compare k to that of a vertically stretched spring with various masses M. By using the following equation:
4) Mg=kx
Where x is the distance of the stretch in the spring. To find the value of the constant k we take the data from procedure A and graph it. Using this graph, we use equation:
5) k=g/slope
We can compare the two values of the constant k. Both values should be exact since we used the same spring...

...Name ___Anjad Itayem_______________ Blackbody Radiation Lab 11
Go to http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Blackbody_Spectrum
and click on Run Now.
1) In this lab, you will use the Blackbody Spectrum Simulation to investigate how the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emitted by objects is affected by the object's temperature. In this simulation, you can input the temperature and observe the spectrum of the radiation emitted.
a) The temperature of stars in the universe varies with the type of star and the age of the star among other things. By looking at the shape of the spectrum of light emitted by a star, we can tell something about its average surface temperature.
i) If we observe a star's spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between red and infrared light, what is the approximate surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 4045 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 3772o C
ii) If we observe a stars spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between blue and ultraviolet light, what is the surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 7080 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 6807o C
b) Light bulbs operate at 2500 degrees C.
i) What is the wavelength at which the most power is...

...
PhysicsLab Report
How does the length of a string holding a pendulum affect its oscillation?
Method
1. You will need the following apparatus: a pendulum, a piece of string, a clamp, a clamp stand and a timer.
2. Measure out 20cm and attach the metal ball.
3. Establish an angle and let the ball swing for 10 oscillations, timing it and stopping at the 10th one.
4. Write down your results.
5. Repeat steps 2-4 another 2 times so that your results are reliable.
6. Then change the length of the string 4 times, so that you get 5 different sets of results and for each time, repeat it 3 times.
DCP
Raw Data
Data Processing
Calculations:
To find the average of the time, I added all 3 values and then divided by three. For example:
(0.89+0.83+0.89)/3 = 0.87
I calculated the absolute uncertainty by considering the furthest point from the mean. For example:
1.31 (mean) – 1.25 (furthest point from the mean) = 0.06
Therefore my absolute uncertainty is +/- 0.06
I calculated the percentage uncertainty by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the mean and multiplying it by 100, like this:
(0.03/1.70) x100 = 0.18%
Source of uncertainties:
The uncertainties in the measurement came primarily from the equipment. Since we used a ruler that was divided into parts of 0.1cm, the readings were normally rounded up or down. The length of string was constant in all 3 times that we...