Physics Experiment of Force and Equilibrium

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E LEVENTH EDITION
A N INTRODUCTION TO

P hysical Science
I nstructor’s Guide to accompany
Laboratory Guide

James T. Shipman
Ohio University

Clyde D. Baker
Ohio University

H OUG HT ON M IFFLIN COM PANY
Boston New York

Vice President and Publisher: Charles Hartford
Executive Editor: Richard Stratton
Senior Development Editor: Rita Lombard
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Marketing Coordinator: Alexandra Shaw

Copyright©2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address inquiries to College Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Company, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116-3764.

Printed in the U.S.A.
ISBN: 0-618-472355-5
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 –CRS-06 05 04 03

CONTENTS
Experiments:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Graphs
Measurement
The Simple Pendulum
Uniform and Accelerated Motion
Determining g, the Acceleration of Gravity
Newton’s Second Law
Hooke’s Law for a Vibrating Spring
Centripetal Acceleration and Force
Laws of Equilibrium
Principle of Work Using an Inclined Plane and Pulleys
Waves
Interference of Light Waves
Plane Mirrors and Index of Refraction of Light
Mirrors, Lenses, and Prisms
The Refracting Telescope
Color
Static Electricity
Magnetism and Electromagnetism
Ohm’s Law
Electric Circuits
Electromagnetic Waves
Temperature
Specific Heat
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Vaporization of Water
Radiation
Spectroscopy
Density of Liquids and Solids
Oxygen
Percentage of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate
Percentage of Oxygen and Nitrogen in the Air
An Exothermic Chemical Reaction
Avogadro’s Number
Molecular Structure
Solutions and Solubility
Pressure-Volume Relationship of Gases
Chemical Qualitative Analysis
Chemical Quantitative Analysis (Volumetric)
Kepler’s Law
Stars and Their Apparent Motions
Locating Stars in the Night Sky
Motions and Phases of the Moon

1
7
11
15
19
23
27
31
33
37
41
43
45
49
53
57
63
67
71
75
85
89
91
95
99
103
105
109
111
113
115
117
119
123
125
127
131
133
135
139
143
149
iii

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

Observing the Phases of the Moon
Hubble’s Law
Measuring the Radius of the Observable Universe
Air Pressure
Humidity
Weather Maps (Part 1)
Weather Maps (Part 2)
Topographic Maps
Minerals
Rocks
Rock-Forming Minerals
Igneous Rocks and Crystallization
Sedimentary Rocks

Appendix

iv

Integrated Equipment and Supply Lists

153
159
163
171
173
175
177
179
181
183
185
187
189
191

Experiment 1

Graphs
INTRODUCTION
The objective of this experiment is to introduce students to graphing and how graphs are used to illustrate relationships in science.
Some students will most likely be acquainted with graphs and how they are plotted, but for others, this will be the first experience with graphs. Thus a few remarks are necessary. First, review the major points in the introduction. Second, go through the guidelines for plotting a good graph. Some students will need special help in choosing proper scales for the x and y axes. Many students have trouble compiling a complete title for the graph. Stress guideline 4. Even though full-page graphs are requested, a few students will still use only about one-fourth of the graph paper to plot the data. Third, point out that ordered pairs of numbers obtained from an equation will produce a graph where the plotted points will fall exactly on the curve connecting these points....
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