# Physics Dot Points Prelim.

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• Published : November 14, 2012

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Physics syllabus dot point summary

Nathan Kulmar
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Physics syllabus dot point summary

Nathan Kulmar

8.2.1.1 describe the energy transformations required in one of the following: – mobile telephone – fax/modem – radio and television
Energy is stored as chemical energy in the phone’s battery. Chemical energy is transformed into electrical energy to operate the phone. The microphone converts sound energy in to electrical energy. Antanna converts electrical to electromagnetic energy to send a siginal. The receiver speaker converts electric energy in to sound energy. 8.2.1.2 describe waves as a transfer of energy disturbance that may occur in one, two or three dimensions, depending on the nature of the wave and the medium

The energy from waves may spread out as a disturbance in
1 Dimension- Energy travels in a straight line from the source 2 Dimensions- Energy spreads out in a plane or surface
3 Dimensions- Energy spreads out in to space surrounding the source in all directions 8.2.1.3 identify that mechanical waves require a medium for propagation while electromagnetic waves do not Mechanical waves: require a medium, solid, liquid or gas to transfer energy. Electromagnetic waves: which don’t require a medium for transfer of energy. 8.2.1.4 define and apply the following terms to the wave model: medium, displacement, amplitude, period, compression, rarefaction, crest, trough, transverse waves, longitudinal waves, frequency, wavelength, velocity

Medium: is what isn’t need for the electromagnetic spectrum to travel. Displacement: the distance from the point of equilibrium to the wave Amplitude: the distance to the point of maximum displacement Period: time taken o complete a single wave length

Compression: an area where partials are pushed together
Rarefaction: point where a partial reaches it’s maximum displacement vertically down Crest: the point where a partial reaches it’s maximum displacement vertically up Trough: the point where a partial reaches it’s maximum displacement vertically down Transverse waves: the direction of travel is at right angles to the oscillation (figure 2) Longitudinal waves: the direction of travel is parallel to the oscillation (figure 1) Frequency: the number of oscillations that pass a point in a second. Wavelength: the distance from crest to crest, trough to trough, compression to compression and rarefaction to rarefaction. Velocity: the speed at which a wave is travelling.

8.2.1.5 describe the relationship between particle motion and the direction of energy propagation in transverse and longitudinal waves Transverse waves: the direction of travel is at right angles to the oscillation Longitudinal waves: the direction of travel is parallel to the oscillation 8.2.1.6 quantify the relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength for a wave: v=fλ

v=velocity
f=frequency
λ= wavelength
v= λ/T
v= f λ
8.2.2.1 identify that sound waves are vibrations or oscillations of particles in a medium The longitudinal waves used by sound require a medium to travel. This is because they move the particles from one point to another in order to create sound.

8.2.2.2 relate compressions and rarefactions of sound waves to the crests and troughs of transverse waves used to represent them

8.2.2.3 explain qualitatively that pitch is related to frequency and volume to amplitude of sound waves The higher the frequency the higher the pitch.
The greater the displacement the louder the noise
8.2.2.4 explain an echo as a reflection of a sound wave
Echo occurs when a sound wave is reflected from a boundary.
When a wave experiences a change in the medium it is travelling through it will be reflected. If it is reflected between two very different mediums than most of the energy is reflected in the interphase. When it occurs between two very similar mediums little energy...