VARIABLES :
Table No.1 - This table shows the independent , dependent and control variables for the experiment. Serial No.| Type of variable| Name of variable|
1| Independent| Number of spaghetti strands , n|
2| Dependent| Mass required to break spaghetti strands , M/g| 3| Control| A. Type of spaghetti stands used. B. Weight of thermocol cup used. C. Distance from the table from which thermocol cup is placed , d/cm.|

METHOD TO CONTROL VARIABLES:
1. Use raw uncooked spaghetti for this experiment.
2. Weigh the thermocol cup using a digital balance.
3. Measure a distance of 12 cm from the edge of the table of the spaghetti strand and suspend the thermocol cup on the strand using a string. INSTRUMENTS:
Table No.2 - This table shows the independent , dependent and control variables for the experiment. Serial No.| Instruments| Least count|
1| Metre rule| 0.1 cm|
2| Digital balance| 0.001 g|

MATERIALS:
* Thermocol cup
* String
* Raw spaghetti
* Masking tape
* Metre rule
* Pencil
* Standard weights

PROCEDURE:
1. First attach the string to the paper cup. Make two holes on either side of the cup just below the rim and pass the string through it. 2. Tape one end of 5 spaghetti strands to the table and suspend the paper cup on the spaghetti strand 12 cm away from the edge of the table. 3. Keep adding standard weights until the spaghetti strands break. 4. Weigh the paper cup with the standard weights.

5. Subtract this weight from the weight of the cup and record this in the table below. 6. Repeat the above steps for 5 trials.
7. Repeat the above steps for 10 , 15 , 20 and 25...

...LAB # 5 Relationship Between Drop Height and Diameter of Plasticine Sphere
PROBLEM: A student suggest that there is a proportional relationship between height at which a plasticine sphere is dropped and the diameter of the flattened part after dropping. Design an experiment to determine if this suggestion is true or not.
AIM: To investigate the relationship between the drop height and the flattened part of a plasticine sphere after being dropped.
HYPOTHESIS: As the height of the sphere plasticine increases the diameter increases.
VARIABLES:
Manipulating: The drop height of the sphere plasticine
Responding: The diameter of the flattened part of the sphere.
Controlled: The size of the ball, the surface area of the drop height and the material from which the sphere is made.
APPARATUS: Sphere plasticine, meter ruler, Vernier caliper, string, marker
METHOD:
Make a sphere out of plasticine and measure its size using the Vernier caliper to maintain a constant size throughout the experiment.
Get a flat and smooth surface area.
Use a meter ruler to measure 60m above the surface area and hold the plasticine to the ruler at the 60m and drop it.
Wrap a piece of string around the flattened part of the sphere and use a marker to mark off where the string stops. Measure the length of the string up to where the mark stops using a meter ruler. Divide the length of the string by 3.14 (pi) to get the diameter.
Record the drop height and the...

...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car will be moving at...

... 9/16/14
Physics 01L
Density
Abstract
This experiment was conducted in order to determine the density of the Aluminum metal samples provided in the lab. Specific tools such as the vernier caliper and balance scale were used to measure and record the values found. Given that density is a measurement of mass over volume, both of these quantities would have to be determined experimentally, prior to proceeding with the calculation of the density, for each of the six subjects tested. Being as accurate and precise as possible, the data yielded a density that was similar to that of the accepted value for the density of aluminum. Taking averages of the measurements recorded by both partners may have introduced a variable for error. However, upon calculating the percent error of the results found, it was concluded that there was less than a three percent error, which supported the accuracy and credibility of the experiment.
Data
Table 1: Tabular Presentation
Aluminum
Diameter D1 (cm)
Diameter
D2 (cm)
Average
Diameter (cm)
Height
H1 (cm)
Height
H2 (cm)
Average Height (cm)
Mass (g)
Volume
(cm3)
1
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.55 cm
1.548 cm
1.549 cm
5.6 g
V=1.96cm3
2
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
9.6 g
V=3.31 cm3
3
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
4.726 cm
4.728 cm
4.727 cm
16.6 g
V=5.92 cm3
4
1.26 cm
1.268 cm
1.264 cm
6.218 cm
6.216 cm
6.217 cm
21.8 g
V=7.80 cm3
5...

...Name ___Anjad Itayem_______________ Blackbody Radiation Lab 11
Go to http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Blackbody_Spectrum
and click on Run Now.
1) In this lab, you will use the Blackbody Spectrum Simulation to investigate how the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emitted by objects is affected by the object's temperature. In this simulation, you can input the temperature and observe the spectrum of the radiation emitted.
a) The temperature of stars in the universe varies with the type of star and the age of the star among other things. By looking at the shape of the spectrum of light emitted by a star, we can tell something about its average surface temperature.
i) If we observe a star's spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between red and infrared light, what is the approximate surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 4045 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 3772o C
ii) If we observe a stars spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between blue and ultraviolet light, what is the surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 7080 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 6807o C
b) Light bulbs operate at 2500 degrees C.
i) What is the wavelength at which the most power is...

...
PhysicsLab Report
How does the length of a string holding a pendulum affect its oscillation?
Method
1. You will need the following apparatus: a pendulum, a piece of string, a clamp, a clamp stand and a timer.
2. Measure out 20cm and attach the metal ball.
3. Establish an angle and let the ball swing for 10 oscillations, timing it and stopping at the 10th one.
4. Write down your results.
5. Repeat steps 2-4 another 2 times so that your results are reliable.
6. Then change the length of the string 4 times, so that you get 5 different sets of results and for each time, repeat it 3 times.
DCP
Raw Data
Data Processing
Calculations:
To find the average of the time, I added all 3 values and then divided by three. For example:
(0.89+0.83+0.89)/3 = 0.87
I calculated the absolute uncertainty by considering the furthest point from the mean. For example:
1.31 (mean) – 1.25 (furthest point from the mean) = 0.06
Therefore my absolute uncertainty is +/- 0.06
I calculated the percentage uncertainty by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the mean and multiplying it by 100, like this:
(0.03/1.70) x100 = 0.18%
Source of uncertainties:
The uncertainties in the measurement came primarily from the equipment. Since we used a ruler that was divided into parts of 0.1cm, the readings were normally rounded up or down. The length of string was constant in all 3 times that we...

...trials were performed or if the class data were to be compared and averaged. Performing the experiments under a vacuum and frictionless setting would remove external variables that affect the data leading to more precise numbers. More accurate percent discrepancies illustrating laws of conservation can be achieved by adding more trials and including more sophisticated measuring tools. These techniques would lead to more accurate results to reduce any experimental errors and to better validate the concepts of energy and momentum conservation.
Conclusion
The purpose of the experiment was to investigate simple elastic and inelastic collisions to study the conservation of momentum and energy concepts. The objective of the lab was met since the validity of the Law of Conservation of Momentum was confirmed by determining the relationship of energy and momentum conservation between inelastic and elastic collisions by utilizing percent discrepancy calculations. The calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 8.75% and 19.23 % for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 22.07% and 9.78 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the elastic collisions were close to the 10%-15% range which validates the concept of momentum conservation in inelastic elastic collisions. In regards to conservation of energy,...

...static friction force vs. the normal force is .391. The slope is the coefficient of static friction. It is found by dividing (largest average – small average)/ (largest normal force – smallest normal force). Since it’s impossible to divide by zero, Fn can’t equal zero which means that a line fitted to these data can’t pass through the origin. The coefficient can also not have a value of zero.
7. See graph. The slope if the coefficient of kinetic friction. It is found by dividing Fn from Fk. Since it is impossible to divide by zero, Fn can’t equal zero which means that a line fitted to these data can’t pass through the origin. The coefficient can also not have a value or zero.
8.
Conclusion:-
In conclusion, the purpose of this lab was to determine the relationship between the force of static and kinetic friction and the weight of an object. We did this by using a block of wood and a set of weight. By using a motion detector and force sensor, we were able to determine the forces of static and kinetic friction of the block with and without weights. For part II, we completed many trials pulling the block with various weights on it across, increasing the weight with each set of trials. From doing this we measured the forces of the kinetic and static friction for each weight. For part III, we pushed the block with and without on additional mass of 500g across, this time measuring the acceleration. We were able to calculate the coefficient of kinetic...

...Year 10 Physics Pendulum Draft Assessment Task
In Physics students will conduct an experiment and be assessed on the following criteria:
1. Data collection and processing (DCP)
2. Conclusion and evaluation (CE)
3. Manipulative skills (MS)
Each criterion will be assessed on the following aspects.
1. DCP
Aspect 1: Recording raw data – records appropriate raw data including units and uncertainties were relevant
Aspect 2: Processing raw data – processes the raw data correctly
Aspect 3: Presenting processed data – presents processed data appropriately, and where relevant includes errors and uncertainties
2. CE
Aspect 1: Concluding – states a conclusion, with justification, based on a reasonable interpretation of the data
Aspect 2: Evaluating procedure – evaluates weaknesses and limitations
Aspect 3: Improving the investigation – suggests realistic improvements in respect of identified weaknesses and limitations.
3. MS (assessed summatively)
Aspect 1: Following instructions – following instructions accurately, adapting to new circumstances (seeking assistance when required)
Aspect 2: Carrying out techniques – competent and methodical in the use of a range of techniques and equipment
Aspect 3: Working safely – pays attention to safety issues
Each criterion will be marked out of 2. Complete will be awarded 2; partial awarded 1; and not at all awarded 0.
This mark will contribute 20% of...