Calorimetry Lab: Determining the Unknown Metal
Purpose: To determine the identity of an unknown metal
Hypothesis: The unknown metal is Copper
Materials:
* Safety glasses
* Styrofoam cup
* Thread or string
* Glass rod
* Thermometer
* 100mL graduated cylinder
* Hot plate
* Balance
* Unknown metal
* 300mL beaker
Procedure:
i. Mass of metal was recorded
ii. Water was heated on a hot plate in beaker
iii. Temperature was recorded when water reached a boil
iv. Cold water was put into graduated cylinder
v. Mass of water was recorded
vi. Cold water was poured into Styrofoam cup
vii. Temperature of cold water was recorded
viii. Metal was removed from hot water and was placed into cold water ix. Temperature change in cold water was recorded
Observations:
 Cold Water Metal
M (kg) 0.117 kg 0.07062 kg 
T1 (C) 98C 81C
T2 (C) 20C 20C
T (C) 2 C 61C
C ( J/kgC) 4.2 x 103  

Analysis:
EH=mcT
mwcwTw= mmcmTm
cm = mwcwTw /mmTm
= (0.117)(4.2x103)(2)/(0.07062)(61)
cm = 228.14
~ 2.3x102 (Silver)
The unknown metal was silver
Discussion:
1. I found the specific heat capacity of my unknown metal in my textbook on page 260 because no metals in the chart matched the calculation I got. 2. Two sources of error for this experiment would be that we cannot determine the actual temperature of the inside of the metal so we just have to assume it is even through, and that our water temperatures changed after we recorded them and before we took the metal out, changing the temperature of the metal so our calculations were not exact. 3. A) Water has a higher specific heat capacity
B) Rock would heat up faster (given the same amount of energy) because it takes more heat energy to change waters temperature by one degree Celsius C) Rock would lose heat faster because it gained heat...
...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car will be moving at...
...Eric Bryan
Period 4
CalorimetryLab
Theory:
To most people heat and temperature are generally the same thing. But really in a scientific sense there is still a similarity between them but they are different concepts. Temperature is the measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance. Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance. Temperature is not energy like heat is, it is just measure of it. Now there is also a difference between heat and thermal energy. Heat is an energy that is transferred between different substances due to a temperature gradient between them while thermal energy is just the energy of a substance related to its temperature. One more thing is specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. For example the specific heat of water is
4186 joule/gramoC. This is higher than any other common substance, which means it has a very large role in temperature regulation. It takes a lot to chance its temperature. Calorimetry is the measure of heat in chemical reactions. How this is done is a substance is put in water and then the temperature change of the water is measured to mind how much the particular substance was able to change it.
DATA:
PART A:
Mass/Volume/Density of Metals
Steel Copper Aluminum
Mass (g) ±.1 75.1 56.6 34.7
Volume (ml) ±1 10 7 13
Density (g/ml) 7.5 ±.08 7.3 ±.08 2.7 ±.08...
...Calorimetry
To determine the specific heat of a metal and its approximate atomic mass. To determine the heat of neutralization for a strong acidstrong base reaction. To determine the quantity and direction of heat flow for the dissolution of salt.
Post Lab Questions and Answers:
1. In parts A and B in, the calorimeter, although a good insulator, absorbs some heat when the system is above room temperature. Is the reported value for the specific heat of the metal too high or too low? Explain. Is the reported DeltaHn value for the acid base reaction too high or too low? Explain.
The DeltaHn value reported in Part B will be lower than the true value because the true Delta T will never be reached. Since the calorimeter absorbs some heat when the system is above room temperature the DeltaT will be too low. Since DeltaT is too low, q in q=mc DeltaT equation will be too low. Therefore, DeltaH is too low.
2. The DeltaHn value for the two strong acidstrong base reactions should be the same, within experimental error. Explain.
The DeltaHn values for the two strong acidstrong bases reactions should be the same, within experimental error, because the net ionic equations are the same for both reactions.
3. If you use a thermometer that is miscalibrated to read .4 degrees Celsius higher over its entire range, does this affect the value for DeltaHn? Explain.
If a thermometer is miscalibrated to read .4 degrees Celsius...
...Name ___Anjad Itayem_______________ Blackbody Radiation Lab 11
Go to http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Blackbody_Spectrum
and click on Run Now.
1) In this lab, you will use the Blackbody Spectrum Simulation to investigate how the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emitted by objects is affected by the object's temperature. In this simulation, you can input the temperature and observe the spectrum of the radiation emitted.
a) The temperature of stars in the universe varies with the type of star and the age of the star among other things. By looking at the shape of the spectrum of light emitted by a star, we can tell something about its average surface temperature.
i) If we observe a star's spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between red and infrared light, what is the approximate surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 4045 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 3772o C
ii) If we observe a stars spectrum and find that the peak power occurs at the border between blue and ultraviolet light, what is the surface temperature of the star? (in degrees C)
Using the Spectrum Simulator, I found that this border is in the neighborhood of 7080 Kelvin, which converts to approximately 6807o C
b) Light bulbs operate at 2500 degrees C.
i) What is the wavelength at which the most power is...
...
PhysicsLab Report
How does the length of a string holding a pendulum affect its oscillation?
Method
1. You will need the following apparatus: a pendulum, a piece of string, a clamp, a clamp stand and a timer.
2. Measure out 20cm and attach the metal ball.
3. Establish an angle and let the ball swing for 10 oscillations, timing it and stopping at the 10th one.
4. Write down your results.
5. Repeat steps 24 another 2 times so that your results are reliable.
6. Then change the length of the string 4 times, so that you get 5 different sets of results and for each time, repeat it 3 times.
DCP
Raw Data
Data Processing
Calculations:
To find the average of the time, I added all 3 values and then divided by three. For example:
(0.89+0.83+0.89)/3 = 0.87
I calculated the absolute uncertainty by considering the furthest point from the mean. For example:
1.31 (mean) – 1.25 (furthest point from the mean) = 0.06
Therefore my absolute uncertainty is +/ 0.06
I calculated the percentage uncertainty by dividing the absolute uncertainty by the mean and multiplying it by 100, like this:
(0.03/1.70) x100 = 0.18%
Source of uncertainties:
The uncertainties in the measurement came primarily from the equipment. Since we used a ruler that was divided into parts of 0.1cm, the readings were normally rounded up or down. The length of string was constant in all 3 times that we...
...trials were performed or if the class data were to be compared and averaged. Performing the experiments under a vacuum and frictionless setting would remove external variables that affect the data leading to more precise numbers. More accurate percent discrepancies illustrating laws of conservation can be achieved by adding more trials and including more sophisticated measuring tools. These techniques would lead to more accurate results to reduce any experimental errors and to better validate the concepts of energy and momentum conservation.
Conclusion
The purpose of the experiment was to investigate simple elastic and inelastic collisions to study the conservation of momentum and energy concepts. The objective of the lab was met since the validity of the Law of Conservation of Momentum was confirmed by determining the relationship of energy and momentum conservation between inelastic and elastic collisions by utilizing percent discrepancy calculations. The calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 8.75% and 19.23 % for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 22.07% and 9.78 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the elastic collisions were close to the 10%15% range which validates the concept of momentum conservation in inelastic elastic collisions. In regards to conservation of energy,...
... 9/16/14
Physics 01L
Density
Abstract
This experiment was conducted in order to determine the density of the Aluminum metal samples provided in the lab. Specific tools such as the vernier caliper and balance scale were used to measure and record the values found. Given that density is a measurement of mass over volume, both of these quantities would have to be determined experimentally, prior to proceeding with the calculation of the density, for each of the six subjects tested. Being as accurate and precise as possible, the data yielded a density that was similar to that of the accepted value for the density of aluminum. Taking averages of the measurements recorded by both partners may have introduced a variable for error. However, upon calculating the percent error of the results found, it was concluded that there was less than a three percent error, which supported the accuracy and credibility of the experiment.
Data
Table 1: Tabular Presentation
Aluminum
Diameter D1 (cm)
Diameter
D2 (cm)
Average
Diameter (cm)
Height
H1 (cm)
Height
H2 (cm)
Average Height (cm)
Mass (g)
Volume
(cm3)
1
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.27 cm
1.55 cm
1.548 cm
1.549 cm
5.6 g
V=1.96cm3
2
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
2.64 cm
9.6 g
V=3.31 cm3
3
1.26 cm
1.266 cm
1.263 cm
4.726 cm
4.728 cm
4.727 cm
16.6 g
V=5.92 cm3
4
1.26 cm
1.268 cm
1.264 cm
6.218 cm
6.216 cm
6.217 cm
21.8 g
V=7.80 cm3
5...
...
Experiment 7: Relative Density
Laboratory Report
Marella Dela Cruz, Janrho Dellosa, Arran Enriquez,
Alyssa Estrella, Zacharie Fuentes
Department of Math and Physics
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philippines
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to show the different methods on how to determine an object’s composition through its density and to determine an object’s density by displacement method and the Archimedes Principle. Results show that. The materials used were the spring scale, beaker, 25 pieces of new 25 centavo coins, a bone from a pig’s leg, diet and regular soft drinks, and a pycnometer.
1. Introduction
Density is a physical property of matter. It is the mass per unit volume of a substance. In this experiment, relative density is also used to be able to determine the composition of the substances or objects used. Relative density is the ratio of a density of a substance to that of the density of a given reference material. It is also known as specific gravity. Density is used when making or building objects that are required to float such as ships on water and airplanes in the sky.
Objectives:
1. To determine the density of an object by displacement method
2. To determine the composition of a substance based on its density
3. To determine the density of a substance by Archimedes Principle
2. Theory
Relative Density (R.D.) or also known as Specific gravity (S.G.), is the raito of the density of...