WHO IS A PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED PERSON?
A person is considered ‘handicapped’ or ‘physically challenged’ when he is not an ordinary person with all limbs. A disabled person is one who suffers from the loss or impairment of a limp or deformity in physical or mental capability whether due to nature's foul play or an unexpected unfortunate accident. Disabled persons are of two types. (i) Physically handicapped (ii) Mentally ill. The condition of disability may arise by birth or in accident. Polio, blindness, deafness, dumbness and mental illness may occur by birth or by other incidents or due to ill health. Handicappedness is measured by medical persons in various degrees while they give certificate to the handicapped person.
It is estimated that about twelve millions Indians about 1.8 per cent of Indian population have at least one disability or the other. About 10 per cent of the handicapped are having more than one type of physical disability. There is growing awareness both in the Government and society about the need to reach out to the disabled people to enable them to become self-sufficient and independent.
The Word “DISABILITY” implies
1. Inability to function normally, physically or mentally; incapacity. 2. Anything that causes disability.
As defined by the Federal Government: “inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to last or has lasted for a continuous period of not less than 12 months.”
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) rehabilitation guidelines, “impairment of an individual as it affects his or her role in life, such as an inability to work because of a health condition.”
The United Nations uses a definition of disability as: Impairment: Any loss of abnormality of psychological or anatomical structure or function. Disability: Any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Handicap: A disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or disability, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal, depending on age, sex, social and cultural factors, for that individual. Handicap is therefore a function of the relationship between disabled persons and their environment. It occurs when they encounter cultural, physical or social barriers which prevent their access to the various systems of society that are available to other citizens. Thus, handicap is the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others.
IN INDIA According to THE PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES (Equal Opportunities, protection Of Rights And Full Participation) ACT, 1995
“PERSON WITH DISABILITY" means a person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority;
“DISABILITY" means i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. blindness; low vision; leprosy-cured; hearing impairment; locomotive disability; mental retardation; mental illness;
i. "blindness" refers to a condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions, namely:a. total absence of sight; or b. visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 in the better eye with correcting lenses; or c. Limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degree or worse.
ii. "person with low vision" means a person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of a task with appropriate assistive device.
iii. "Leprosy cured person" means any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from a. loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye and eye-lid but with no manifest deformity; b. manifest...