In this experiment, we are finding the Conservation of Energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy is summed up into two different properties: Potential energy and Kinetic energy. The law of Energy states that:

Total Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy
Or
Em = Ep + Ek

Also, the equations for Potential energy and Kinetic energy are stated to get the Total Energy. They are respectively:

Ep = mghandEk = ½ (m)v2

The Conservation of Energy states that energy is always constant. If potential energy increases then kinetic energy decreases and vice versa.
In this experiment we positioned a marble ball on a wooden roller coaster positioned on a physics stand in the sixth hole. Throughout the experiment, we used an electronic timer to record the time of the marble where it passed through the light beam of its clamp. We positioned the clamp at a certain point on the roller coaster and measured the distance from the marble to the clamp; the height of the clamp; and finally the time the ball traveled through the clamp. After we recorded these different figures we calculated the speed of the marble from the given distance traveled and the time. We repeated the step 14 times, then proceeded to graph the speed and the height. Next, we took the measurements of position of the clamp, height, and speed and calculated the potential energy, the kinetic energy, and the total energy. Total energy calculated as mentioned before. Potential energy is taking the mass (m) which is 28.1g times gravity (g) which is 9.8 m/s2 times the height. Kinetic energy is one-half times the mass (m) times velocity (v2). Finally we graphed the...

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Westwood College
Project 1
PhysicalScience Research Paper
Evan Duran
PHYS212
October 8, 2013
Physicalscience is the study of physics and chemistry of nature. From the materialist and functionalist viewpoints it overlaps the life sciences where ecology studies the evidences of historical facts or evolution. Physics along with Mathematics and Chemistry is one of the fundamentalsciences because the other natural sciences like biology, geology etc., deal with systems that seem to obey the laws of physics. According to Physics, the physical laws of matter, energy and the fundamental forces of nature govern the interactions between particles and physical entities (such as planets, molecules, atoms or the subatomic particles).
Some of the basic pursuits of physics are describing the nature, measuring and quantifying of bodies and their motion, dynamics and so on. But what I want to touch up on is mass, force and weight. Considering that I am a Construction Management major, I believe these are the top key physics implemented in the pursuit of construction.
Mass is a measure of the amount of material in an object, weight is the gravitational force acting on a body (although for trading purposes it is taken to mean the same as mass), force is a measure of the interaction between bodies and load usually means the...

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DENSITY DETERMINATION
“Which is heavier, a pound of feathers or a pound of lead?” The answer is obvious, of course, since a pound of feathers and a pound of lead both weigh the same—one pound. However, there is clearly something different about a small piece of lead and a large bag of feathers, even though they weigh the same.
The relationship between the lead and feathers is expressed by the physical property called density. Density is defined as the ratio of a substance’s mass to the volume it occupies.
Density (g/mL) = Mass (g)___
Volume (mL)
In this laboratory investigation, you will be using the physical property of density to determine the identity of different substances. You will also calculate the percent error, which is a comparison of the differences between the measured value and accepted value. Percent error can be determined as follows:
% Error = Measured Value – Accepted Value x 100
Accepted Value
Objectives
When you have completed this activity, you should be able to:
Observe the chemical and physical properties of substances to interpret the structure of and changes in matter.
Materials
balance
metric ruler
100 mL graduated cylinder
250 mL beaker
rectangular solid (child’s block)
metal sample (fishing weight)
Procedure
Part I: Rectangular Solid
Mass:
Use the balance to determine the mass of the rectangular solid.
Record...

...Lesson 1.02 Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration
Speed- measures the amount of distnace traveled in a given amount of time. (Doesn't measure the direction of the travel) How fast an object is going with respect to a frame of reference.
You find speed by dividing distance by time. (Speed = distance/time)
Instantaneous speed- the speed you are traveling at that moment, instead of an average.
Motion- change in position of an object, relative to a frame of reference.
Frame of reference- place or object that you assume is fixed. You observe how other objects move by comparing them to that frame of reference.
Velocity- a measure of the speed and direction of an object. When speed, direction or both change velocity changes.
If there is an increase in speed then positive acceleration can result.
If there is a decrease in speed then negative acceleration (deceleration) can result.
Acceleration= change in velocity/ time
Acceleration can involve a change in the direction an object is moving. (Change in velocity over time) If the change in velocity is an increase = positive acceleration. If the change in velocity is a decrease = negative acceleration or deceleration.
Lesson 1.02h Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration
Scalar quantities- a measurement that has a size or magnitude but no direction. (speed, time, temperature & mass) Velocity and acceleration are NOT scalar quantities.
Speed is always positive.
Vector quantity- has both magnitude and a direction. (Velocity, acceleration and...

...PhysicalScience Second Semester Exam Grade 9 2014 Name: _________________________
Chapter 11 Motion
1. Practice displacement problem: What is the displacement of a ball that rolls 10 meters uphill, then rolls back down 15 meters before stopping? 5 m
2. Practice displacement problem: What is the displacement of a car that moves 10 m north, then 2 meters south, then 3 meters north and finally 8m south? 3 m north
3. Average speed problem: Truck traveled 75 km in 3 hours., 25 km in the next 1 hour and then 100 km in the next 4 hours. What is the truck’s average speed? 25 km/hours
4. Speed problems: What is the speed of a bicycle whose distance time-time graph indicates that the bicycle traveled 75 m in 25 s? 3m/s
5. What is the rate at which velocity changes? Acceleration
6. What are the 3 parts of the definition for acceleration? Speeding up, slowing down and change in direction
7. What do objects in free fall experience near the surface of Earth? Constant acceleration
8. What are some examples of an object achieving constant acceleration due only to a change in direction? E.g. moving in a circle, turning around a corner, running around a circular track
9. Practice acceleration calculations: What is the acceleration of a car that increases in speed from 45km to 60 km in 5s? 3 m/s2
10. Practice acceleration calculations: What is the acceleration of an object that goes from 45 m/s to...

...Earth’s surface |
| b) | closer to the Moon’s surface |
| c) | halfway from Earth to Moon |
| d) | at no point, since Earth always pulls more strongly |
Question 5 | | (1 point)Save |
When a projectile achieves escape speed from Earth, it
| a) | outruns the influence of gravity, but is never beyond it |
| b) | forever leaves Earth’s gravitational field |
| c) | comes to an eventual stop, eventually returning to Earth at some future time |
| d) | likely becomes a black hole |
Question 6 | | (1 point)Save |
A ball rolling along a bowling alley maintains its speed because
| a) | it has inertia |
| b) | gravity doesn’t pull on it while moving |
| c) | there is no horizontal force acting on the ball |
| d) | it behaves as a projectile |
Question 7 | | (1 point)Save |
If you drop a ball it will fall 5 m in the first second of fall. If instead you toss it sideways, in one second it will fall beneath its straight-line path a vertical distance of
| a) | less than 5 m |
| b) | 5 m |
| c) | more than 5 m |
| d) | none of these |
Question 8 | | (1 point)Save |
A ball is thrown horizontally from atop of a 5-meter platform and travels a horizontal distance of 15 meters before hitting the ground below. The initial speed of the ball must have been about
| a) | 5 m/s |
| b) | 10 m/s |
| c) | 10 m/s2 |
| d) | 15 m/s |...

... Physics is how everything in the world works in harmony. Without it, things would be floating around, the earth wouldn’t rotate, and it’d be a huge mess. Newton’s laws of physics are the best way to explain how the physical world works.
Newton’s first law of motion states “an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will continue moving at a consistent velocity unless acted upon by a net force. A real world example of this would be playing golf. The golf ball sits on the tee with no momentum, nor force acting upon it (excluding the force of gravity). And when the club comes through to hit it, it generates a greater net force and moves through the ball with a certain velocity. The momentum from the club is then transferred from the club, to the ball. When the ball is in the air, it is moving at a constant velocity but is being acted upon by friction, which would be the air and gravity. Over a certain amount of time, the ball will eventually hit the ground, depending on its momentum and how much friction is acted on it.
Another example of physical in the real world would be The Law of Inertia. This law is the idea of the tendency of an object to resist any change in momentum. A table cloth could be used to portray this law. If pulled quickly, a tablecloth can be removed from underneath dishes. The dishes have the tendency to remain still as long as the friction from the movement of the tablecloth is not too great. If...

...many pennies each noodle could hold counting every single one that drops into the cup until the noodle *snaps*.
Controlled variable: How far apart i put the chairs and also where we tape the tape.
Hypothesis - if we tape one angel hair, one fetuchini, and one spaghetti noodle then the fettuchini noodle will hold the most pennies.
Materials - a 14 ounce plastic cup, two three foot tall stools, seventy pennies, 7 inches of fishing line, three angel hair noodles, three fettuchini noodles, and three spaghetti noodles.
Procedures
1. Gather all of the materials.
2. Measure the stools putting them 16 cm apart.
3. Tape only one of the noodles from one end to the other in between the stools.
4. Tie the plastic cup onto the noodle in the middle.
5. Begin dropping coins into the cup counting each one till the noodle snaps.
6. Repeat this with each noodle three times recording data on how much each held each time.
Data
Results - My hypothesis was that if we tape one angel hair, one fetuchini, and one spaghetti noodle then the fettuchini noodle will hold the most pennies. My hypothesis was supported by my data, the fettuchini noodle held 45 to 55 pennies while the other two noodles held at most 30 pennies. Our only human error was that during the switching of noodles we had knocked down a stool, we quickly grabbed a ruler and put the stools 16 cm apart again.
Conclusion - In this experiment we investigated which type of pasta noodle would hold the most pennies if...

...Exercise 5: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
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OBJECTIVES:
1. Describe the distinguishing features of gymnosperms and angiosperms.
2. Understand the evolutionary significance of pollen and seeds.
3. Understand the function of a cone, a flower, and a seed.
4. Relate the life cycle of angiosperms to the other phyla of the plant kingdom.
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INTRODUCTION TO GYMNOSPERMS
Gymnosperms are plants with exposed seeds borne on scale-like structures called cones (strobili). Like ferns, gymnosperms have a well-developed alternation of generations, but unlike most ferns, gymnosperms are heterosporous - they produce two types of spores (Fig. 1). Microspores occur in male cones and form male gametophytes. Megaspores occur in female cones and form female gametophytes. Gametophytes of gymnosperms are microscopic and completely dependent on the large, free living sporophyte. One advantage of this is that the delicate female gametophytes do not have to cope with environmental stressors - female gametophytes and the embryos they produce are sheltered from drought and harmful UV radiation by their enclosure within the moist reproductive tissues of the parental sporophyte generation. Nutrient exchange also occurs between gametophytes and their parents. In contrast, the free-living gametophytes of seedless vascular plants...